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A Review Study of Information-Structural Perspectives on THERE Existential Sentences

Vol.6 (No.3) 2021
Author
admin
Date
2021-09-30 11:14
Views
25

Abstract


Purpose: This paper is to review some recent studies on There existential sentences under the notion of Information Structure, showing that the main purpose of using There sentence is to stress negative or quantifier words within the sentence. It begins with some research data on the patterns of There existential sentences in two English novels, one Korean-English translation and three versions of English-Korean translation: ‘Sense and Sensibility’, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen; and three English-Korean translations of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ . Then, it follows two empirical studies on the acquisition level of There sentences.
Method: There are two studies on research data analysis and two empirical studies. The first research data of two novels is from Literature Online Collection(Lion) and uses AntConc corpus analysis toolkit(3.5.8.0). In the second study, ‘The Vegetarian’ is chosen as a representative of Korean-English novel because it won The Man Booker International Prize. However, the three English-Korean translated versions of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ are randomly chosen. Then, the first acquisition level study has 17 university students answer 9 questions on information structure sentences; There expletive, passive and inversion sentences, and the second study has 75 students answer 12 questions on There sentences only. Both studies use SPSS 20.0 for the data analysis.
Results: According to the text analysis, more than 50% of There sentences have negative words or quantifiers with nouns as a way of end-focus realization. In other words, one of the main reasons to use the There construction is to stress the non-existence of a certain noun or the quantity of a noun using There expletive. Thus, the data from translations says There sentences with quantifiers are more realized than those with negatives, and this also applies to the level of acquisition. The survey participants of the empirical studies are shown more aware of the sentences with quantifiers than negative words.
Conclusion: English writers or speakers use There expletive sentences for specific reasons and one of them is to make readers or hearers to focus on some negatives or quantifiers with the nouns within the sentence. However, it seems that this reason has not been considered in both English education and English-Korean translation. Even though the studies mentioned in this paper need more back up data in both research and empirical area, this summary of previous studies will be a starting point to lead to further studies in this field.

Keyword:Information Structure, There Existential Sentences, End-Focus Realization, Negatives, Quantifiers
  • Purpose: As the times are changing rapidly, the change in the educational paradigm of universities is in an environment where it is impossible to retreat any more. Global leaders and future companies are demanding talents with collaboration, communication, and creativity. The most important educational system for nurturing talents with these competencies in universities requires a change in educational method from one-way education to interactive education. This paper is to propose the development of a communication education model to meet the creative convergence-type talent cultivation desired by the future society in the age of artificial intelligence. Method: The true meaning of interactive education is to increase the participation rate of learners in class and to increase self-directed learning ability and creativity through self-learning. Moreover, creativity development comes from the process of self-learning with interest. As distance classes increase due to COVID-19, the realization of interactive communication education is emerging as a biggest problem. There is a way to support the implementation of sufficient learning in online and offline education by using smart tools instead of test papers. This paper is to focus on using the interactive communication tools such as QuizN, Symflow, and Padlet. Results: In order to enhance the creativity of learners at universities, which are higher education institutions, efforts such as the development of various programs, the production of various contents, and the design and development of teaching and learning methods should be made. In addition, the following conditions are required for the educational method in universities for creativity enhancement. First, the learner's interest, motivation, and voluntary participation in class must be preceded. Second, it is necessary to enhance the humanities thinking ability, which has the characteristic of multiplicity. Third, the learner must lead the class proactively. Conclusion: This study proposed the development of the interactive education model for creative convergence talents. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that it will greatly contribute to the development of education such as program development, content production, and teaching-learning method development for value creation of an academic education model. Moreover, given the reality of conducting online distance education due to COVID-19, it is expected that the interactive communication education model proposed in this study can be fully utilized.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Interactive Education, Education Model, Non-Face-To-Face Training, Self-Directed Learning
  • Purpose: In this study, how the identity of women characters in Disney's animation of “Aladdin” was changed among the live action film characters, and how they were visually reflected were analyzed, and the value with providing help for the new contents development for the production of live action films. Method: Princess Jasmine, Aladdin's woman character, was selected as the research subject, and the scenes overlapping with the original animation were extracted from the live action film scenes, after which the characters, makeup, hairstyle, apparel styling, and apparel colors were compared and analyzed. As for the color analysis, it was performed by using the Korean Standard Color’s Color Analysis(KSCA) program. Results: Princess Jasmine's character orientation was completed with a new character who sought to become the Sultan of Agrabah by breaking away from a passive and male dependent woman. In the live action film, the eye shadow and lip color were changed to produce the angular eyebrows and clear eyes, while the hairstyle was changed to colorful accessories, braided hair, parting position, and upstyle, respectively. In the anime, blue is the primary color for apparel on the exposed tops and pants, and depending on the situation, a sexy image was created with the color of red. In the live action film, it was a formal dress and pants, while purple, gold, orange, and green were primarily used since the signature colors is blue green. Conclusion: The identity of Princess Jasmine's woman character has transformed from femininity to an entrepreneurial leader, and it is expected that the character analysis and research will continue to develop creative and original films when producing the live action films which recreate animation characters.
    Keyword:Women Characters, Disney's Animation, Aladdin, Live Action Film, Characteristics
  • Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the relationship between civil servants' satisfaction with flexible-work arrangement and their job satisfaction. In addition, another goal of this study is to verify the moderating effect of decision-making on the relationship between satisfaction with flexible-work system and job satisfaction. By doing so, this study is highly anticipated not only to contribute to the development of Korea’s quantitative research on flexible-work system, but also to provide implications for enhancing the effects of flexible-work arrangement from a practical point of view. Method: To verify the hypotheses of this study, the 2020 Public Employee Perception Survey data provided by the Korea Institute of Public Administration(KIPA) was used. The subjects of this survey are public officials from the central administrative agencies and metropolitan local governments. Variables included in the analysis model of this study include job satisfaction(dependent variable), satisfaction with flexible-work arrangement(independent variable), decision-making(control variable), gender, age, marital status, educational background, and position(control variable). Statistical analysis was performed to verify the moderating effect by validating the hypotheses through regression analysis. Results: As a result of the statistical analysis, civil servants with a higher level of satisfaction with their flexible-work arrangement were found to have a higher job satisfaction than their counterpart. Moreover, hypothesis testing on the moderating effect of decision-making on the relationship between satisfaction with flexible-work arrangement and job satisfaction verified a partial moderating effect of decision-making. In addition, older civil servants and married civil servants tend to have higher job satisfaction than each of their corresponding counterparts. Conclusion: In order to overcome the limitations of quantitative studies conducted on flexible-work arrangement in Korea, this study analyzed the quantitative relationship between satisfaction with flexible-work system and job satisfaction and confirmed a positive relationship between the two variables. In addition, the moderating effect of decision-making on the positive influential relationship between satisfaction with flexible-work arrangement and job satisfaction were verified. It suggests that in order to further strengthen the positive relationship between satisfaction with flexible-work system and job satisfaction, efforts need to be made to enhance the fairness and transparency of decision-making process within organizations.
    Keyword:Flexible-Work Arrangement, Satisfaction with Flexible-Work Arrangement, Job Satisfaction, Decision Making , Public Sector
  • Purpose: ‘Hairstyles express visual beauty, so images can be perceived differently. This study conducted a study on Milbon's color hair dye that can create public value through changes in appearance according to hair color. Although there are many studies related to brands such as Wella, Amos, and L'Oreal in the preceding studies related to hair color trends, the current research related to Milbon is very insufficient. Method: The characteristics of S/S and F/W Milbone hair trends from 2016 to 2019 were examined, and the color trend of Milbone was analyzed by examining prior research and Internet data. For the empirical method, 500 photos of actresses who appeared in dramas aired from 2016 to 2019 were collected based on 8 colors of the Milbone color trend, and the final 24 photos were selected and analyzed among 40 photos about hair color and Milbone color trend. Results: As a result of analyzing through an empirical method based on the consideration of previous studies, 2016 expressed softness in a natural atmosphere, healthy and strong, 2017 expressed sophistication that can add natural and modernity, and 2018 It expresses a casual atmosphere and beautiful dignity. And 2019 expressed luxury, maturity, and conservative but stylish. Conclusion: It was found that the hair color of the celebrities who appeared in the selected drama best expressed the image and feeling from the concept, texture, and hair color appearing in the Milborn color trend. As a result of comparative analysis from a subjective point of view, there is a limit to securing universality, and we hope that there will be follow-up studies on hair color trends in the future, and we want to become a cornerstone of data that can be used by predicting future hair trends.
    Keyword:Milbon, Color Trend, Hair Style, Hair Color, Beauty Trend
  • Purpose: As the economy grows, many forests, fields, and agricultural land have been converted into industrial complexes. Accordingly, there are deep concerns about damage to the natural ecosystem and environmental impact. This study analyzed the factors related to the natural environment by type for industrial complexes promoted in forest areas. The authors hope to balance development and conservation by identifying the relationship between factors related to the natural environment. In addition, this study tried to derive rational ways to develop industrial complexes suitable for low-carbon green growth. Method: This study was analyzed based on 95 environmental impact assessments that business operators applied for consultation with agencies concerned to build industrial complexes in Daegu and Gyeongbuk, Korea, for 16 years from 2005 to 2020. The researchers conducted a one-way ANOVA analysis to determine the difference in green area ratio, forest field ratio, tree transplantation ratio, and ecological area ratio by industrial complex type . Post-hoc analysis was performed by the Scheffe test. This paper used the Spss Statistics 21 statistics program to conduct the above statistical analysis. Results: The number of consultations for industrial complexes was highest for general industrial complexes. The green area ratio was 5.60% higher in national industrial complexes than in agricultural and industrial complexes. The forest field ratio was 71.84% in quasi-industrial complexes, 40.14% higher than 31.70% in quasi-agro-industrial complexes. The tree transplantation ratio was low in national industrial complexes and quasi-industrial complexes. The ecological area ratio decreased by 72.93% after development compared to before development in general industrial complexes and decreased by 65.75% after development compared to before development in national industrial complexes. Conclusion: Before the industrial complex development, the forest field ratio showed differences by type. However, there was no difference in the ecological area ratio after the development of the industrial complex. This result was seen as the minimum standard set by law in parks and green areas. Therefore, it is necessary to develop eco-friendly industrial complexes rather than reckless development to minimize forest damage. The authors believe it is necessary to respond to climate change and contribute to low-carbon green growth by minimizing the forest area within the development area and increasing the ecological area ratio and tree transplantation ratio after development.
    Keyword:Industrial Complex, Deforestation, Green Area Ratio, Ecological Area Ratio, Green Growth
  • Purpose: This paper is to review some recent studies on There existential sentences under the notion of Information Structure, showing that the main purpose of using There sentence is to stress negative or quantifier words within the sentence. It begins with some research data on the patterns of There existential sentences in two English novels, one Korean-English translation and three versions of English-Korean translation: ‘Sense and Sensibility’, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen; and three English-Korean translations of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ . Then, it follows two empirical studies on the acquisition level of There sentences. Method: There are two studies on research data analysis and two empirical studies. The first research data of two novels is from Literature Online Collection(Lion) and uses AntConc corpus analysis toolkit(3.5.8.0). In the second study, ‘The Vegetarian’ is chosen as a representative of Korean-English novel because it won The Man Booker International Prize. However, the three English-Korean translated versions of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ are randomly chosen. Then, the first acquisition level study has 17 university students answer 9 questions on information structure sentences; There expletive, passive and inversion sentences, and the second study has 75 students answer 12 questions on There sentences only. Both studies use SPSS 20.0 for the data analysis. Results: According to the text analysis, more than 50% of There sentences have negative words or quantifiers with nouns as a way of end-focus realization. In other words, one of the main reasons to use the There construction is to stress the non-existence of a certain noun or the quantity of a noun using There expletive. Thus, the data from translations says There sentences with quantifiers are more realized than those with negatives, and this also applies to the level of acquisition. The survey participants of the empirical studies are shown more aware of the sentences with quantifiers than negative words. Conclusion: English writers or speakers use There expletive sentences for specific reasons and one of them is to make readers or hearers to focus on some negatives or quantifiers with the nouns within the sentence. However, it seems that this reason has not been considered in both English education and English-Korean translation. Even though the studies mentioned in this paper need more back up data in both research and empirical area, this summary of previous studies will be a starting point to lead to further studies in this field.
    Keyword:Information Structure, There Existential Sentences, End-Focus Realization, Negatives, Quantifiers
  • Purpose: Nail art today has taken its place as a genre of art to which individual and creative senses are added beyond the simple example of cutting finger and toe nails. With a view to expand the design of the Zentangle Pattern to the aspect of nail art by developing unique designs by utilizing the Zentangle Pattern via reflecting the preference of the modern people perennially seeking new objects, the purpose lies with developing a stimulus which presents only the main design by utilizing elements of reinforcement, thereby taking its place as a public value. Method: As for the research method, the formative elements of the Zentangle Pattern were considered, and the 4 elements of dot, line, plane, and shape were utilized through the related previous papers and books, and based on the books carrying the contents similar to the curriculum taught at Zentangle.com of the United States, 42 pieces of main designs were presented with 7 points for 6 special characteristic for each reinforcement. Results: As a consequent of which, the 6 special characteristics for each reinforcement of the Zentangle Pattern could be applied to the nail design in various angles to present possibilities of design. Conclusion: Through this study, it was possible to confirm the potential for expanding the area of design by being utilized as a design which may elevate the consumers’ satisfaction with visually unique and creative designs in the field of nail industry. It is expected that, based on the researcher's 42 pieces of main designs, various designs for the development of reconfigurable designs and new expressive techniques will become a subject of study which may carry a public value.
    Keyword:Zentangle, Nail Design, Nail Art, Gel Nail, Pattern Nail
  • Purpose: This study complements some of the limitations of the past developed tool for measuring medical ethics consciousness of Korean young students. Method: This study was based on the past tool which was developed according to G. Lind of Germany. The validity process followed the verification procedure of Moral Competence Test (MCT) proposed by G. Lind. To get much higher validation, this study got advices from 3 specialist in the sphere of moral education. Results: This study adopted the result of the past medical ethics consciousness measurement tool. Its whole validation did cover three major processes, preference hierarchy by moral development, affective-cognitive parallelism test, quasi-simplex structure of inter-correlations between the six moral orientations test by L. Kohlberg. This past tool showed weakness in the point of preference hierarchy test. Especially the tool got some strange situation at 1st stage and 4th stage. To back up this weakness, we made a decision to receive specialists’ advices. So we interviewed 3 people who is professor or research fellow in the sphere of moral education. We could arrived at more advanced level for medical ethics consciousness. Conclusion: This study showed the more advanced medical ethics consciousness tool. Next time it is necessary to generalized through deep research using much broader topics in the medical ethics.
    Keyword:Medical Consciousness Measurement Tool, Moral Competence Test, Preference Hierarchy by Moral Development, Affective-Cognitive Parallelism Test, Quasi-Simplex Structure of Inter Correlations between the Six Moral Orientations Test
  • Purpose: The stadiums play an important role in the development of a city. It is not only the place to hold sport events, but also an important regulating factor for the development of a city. Under the theme of sustainable development, how to develop stadiums to play the biggest role in urban development is the topic. This paper aims to make stadium become the driving force of regional environmental change, and provide necessary conditions for urban regeneration and renewal, so as to drive the realization of sustainable development of the city through urban renewal and upgrading. Method: In this paper, CiteSpace 5.7.R5 was used as the research tool, the core database of Web of Science was selected as the literature source, the stadiums or venues and urban development and Olympic legacy were taken as the search terms, and the literature type was set as literature. A total of 1912 literature from 2010 to 2021 were selected for visualized analysis to draw the knowledge map of stadiums and urban development, and the number of published papers, institutions and research hotspots of related research on stadiums and urban development were studied. Results: Firstly, according to the published number of related research on the stadiums and urban development from 2010 to 2021, this period presented three different stages. The number of literature published on topics related to stadiums and urban development from 2010 to 2015 was relatively stable. From 2016 to 2018, the research on stadiums and urban development showed a sharp decrease, and the research enthusiasm began to decline. Between 2018 and 2021, the number of studies gradually increased and reached the highest number. Then, universities at home and abroad were the main research institutions on stadiums and urban development, and kept a continuous focus on this topic. Finally, the research focus in this field focused on the construction and development of stadiums, mega sport events and stadiums and the relationship between stadiums and urban development from architecture and city and link of stadiums, city and mega sport event. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2021, domestic and foreign scholars maintained a certain amount of enthusiasm in the research on stadiums and urban development, with a large number of research results. With the holding of the Olympic Games, the number of literature also increases, which provides reference resources for the follow-up research on the stadium and urban development. Second, universities at home and aboard have conducted more research on stadiums and urban development than other types of institutions. Finally, the research hotspots on stadium and urban development focuses on the analysis of the construction and development of stadium from different perspectives, mega sport events, and the relationship between stadiums and urban development from architecture and city and link of stadiums, city and mega sport event.
    Keyword:Sport Stadiums, Urban Development, Visualized Analysis, Research Hotspots, Cite Space
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a Public lifelong education model for the second life plan of middle-aged and elderly people in order to cope with the rapid progress of today's aging society. Public support is needed so that middle-aged adults can design their second life and live successfully according to their own plans. In this study, the purpose is to propose a lifelong education model for the second life design and support for middle-aged adults. Method: The research method of this study used various methods such as literature research, Delphi research, and expert advisory meeting. First, literature research and previous studies related to life redesign and second life of middle-aged adults were analyzed. And, using the components of the middle-aged adult lifelong education model of the expert group extracted from the Delphi survey results. Finally, a lifelong education model was developed to support the second life plan for middle-aged and elderly people by collecting and reflecting the opinions of the expert group. Results: As a result of the study, the second life support lifelong education model for middle-aged and elderly people focuses on middle-aged learners, and analyzes the second life plan of middle-aged and elderly through counseling on life course and learning according to the learner's personal career and orientation. It is necessary to develop lifelong education programs that can support this and guide them to participate in such lifelong education. Conclusion: Supporting the second life plan for middle-aged and elderly people is not something that any individual or institution can do. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the lifelong education model that supports the second life plan of the middle-aged and elderly with a strategy that connects and utilizes existing systems and functions to the maximum extent.
    Keyword:Lifelong-Education, Lifelong-Learning, Aging-Society, Second-Life-Design, Lifelong-Education-Model