All Articles

The Impact of Press Freedom on POLICE Confidence: An Empirical Analysis of 15 OECD Countries Including KOREA

Vol.1 (No.2) 2016
2016-12-30 14:05


Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, community policing has been adopted in most of police agencies in the United States as well as many other countries to improve overall effectiveness of police departments and enhance citizen’s perception toward police. Under the philosophy of community policing, police-community relation is considered as one of important elements to success their missions. That is, effective community policing requires input of citizens regarding the needs and problems of the community. Thus, public attitude toward police can be very influential and should be one that is positive. For instance, there has always existed a cyclical relationship between the police and the public: distrust towards the police affects their effectiveness of crime control, which leads to an increase in crime that, ultimately, results in further distrust. Nationwide, principally in countries that have a widespread allocation of poverty and interference from an overreaching state or government, law en-forcement has been viewed particularly disapprovingly and untrusting due to past behaviors of their own police involved in corruption and dishonesty.
Although there has been an extensive body of research that has been conducted on public confidence in the police, there has been limited research that has focused on press freedom and other nations. The purpose of current study, therefore, is to shed light on the public confidence in police across 15 OECD countries using the World Value Survey(2010-2014). Moreover, the study attempts to determine how press freedom influences the public confidence in policing forces across 15 countries.
The findings from this study partially supported our research hypothesis where press freedom positively influ-enced public confidence in the police agencies across the OECD countries. More specifically, consistent with prior research, individual characteristics of the respondents were statistically significant while the press freedom be-came a non-significant factor on police confidence. In particular, people who were older, female, and have a high level of education tend to report a higher level of police confidence. In addition, two country level variables were statistically significant. That is, crime rates had a negative impact on police confidence while economic growth were positively related to the police confidence. Although the current study improves our understanding of the effect of press freedom on police confidence, there are several limitations, and future study needs to be con-ducted to better understand police confidence. Finally, implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Keyword:Criminal, Crimes, Police Confidence, Press Freedom, OECD Countries
  • Teenage SNS cyber verbal abuse affect not only mental but also physical features of daily lives, bringing experiences of rage, demoralization and senses of outrage and humiliation. Juvenile SNS cyber verbal abuse may induce mental․physical in daily lives, as well as in school lives, critically harming the personality of a victim. The thesis aims at contemplating causes and countermeasures of cyber verbal abuse in juvenile SNS language uses in such a mobility society. Thus, observing the juvenile SNS usage state, the notion and types of cyber verbal abuse is proposed. Further, based on the context, causes and countermeasures of the juvenile SNS cyber verbal abuse are considered. The thesis suggests the causes of juvenile SNS cyber verbal abuse in terms of SNS media feature, internal characteristic of the juvenile and educational aspect. In addition, a campaign to eliminate school verbal abuse by the police, mentoring curriculum associated with each social institution and character education are revised in a societal manner, and langage education to pre-vent juvenile SNS verbal abuse in an educational manner as countermeasures against the juvenile SNS cyber verbal abuse. Guiding an appropriate direction for juvenile SNS language use in the mobility society, the thesis would con-tribute to discover a meaning in educational and sociocultural aspects. Moreover, the thesis would contribute to counteracting against juvenile SNS verbal abuse and to an adequate guidance of juvenile language uses.
    Keyword:Mobile, SNS, Cyber Verbal Abuse, Law Enforcement, Crime Prevention
  • Recently, a growing number of cases of school violence at school sites have become contentious and become legal problems, and the phenomenon is deepening beyond what teachers can solve. In line with these social changes, the Act on the prevention of and countermeasures against violence in schools was enacted in 2004. However, a number of complementary points are being discussed regarding the formation and operation of an autonomous committee for countermeasures against school violence under the current law. As the autonomous committee, which plays the most direct role as a response to school violence, needs to operate efficiently, the study explored the development direction through the analysis of current statutes and prior studies. The preceding studies presented various conclusions, but in common they suggested a lack of expertise in the formation of autonomous committees. It also said it lacked counseling and other support for the victims. Based on these problems, the study presented the following improvement directions. The first is the strengthening of the professionalism of the autonomous committee. The results of the preceding studies show that non-professional parent representatives include a majority, weakening their professionalism. Therefore, the need to expand the participation of external members in order to secure expertise is recognized. The second is the expansion of exclusion and recusal and the broad-basedization of the autonomous committee. It will be necessary to expand the system of exclusion and recusal in conjunction with the strengthening of professionalism. In order to eventually resolve this issue, the broad-basedization of the autonomous committee should also be considered. The third, parents' education closest to students should be required so that education can be conducted within the home. However, since such parents' education cannot be enforced under the current law, there is a need to establish a rule to supplement it. Finally, it is necessary to bring the victims' support to reality. In order to make the support of the victims a reality, it may be possible to activate the counseling function, including professional social workers, in the form of autonomous committees. Another is the use of the expertise of the Korea Crime Victim support Center. This improvement will serve as a positive aspect of the autonomous committee's activities to reduce school violence.
    Keyword:Criminal, School Violence, Autonomous Committee, Crime Prevention, Strengthening of the Professionalism
  • Smart Home, also known as Home IoT, refers to the product, service and solution remotely monitoring, controlling and operating domestic devices through the connection to the wireless network with mobile phones and computers. Smart Home has been developed into diverse versions, however its security still owns vulnerability in its device, network and privacy. Considering Smart Home security employs Public network, thus it is relatively more vulnerable than the ones, such as Smart Factory with Private network. Smart Home devised for convenience and safety of lifestyles may result in a disaster in private lives, if its security vulnerability is not resolved. The thesis examines past security threat cases in Smart Home environment, analyzes them in three different aspects – device, network and privacy – then would propose a counter-measure against the threats.
    Keyword:IoT, Smart Home, Hacking, CCTV, Security
  • A country is responsible for the safety of the people. It would be ideal for the police to protect the safety of all people and, if it is possible, the private security industry, would not develop any further. However, the crime rate of South Korea has continued to rise and the safety services provided by the country are limited. It is because it is impossible to predict when, where, and how a dangerous situation may occur. The “Security Services Industry Act” was enacted to foster the private security industry sound and healthy. It was enacted in 1976 and has been revised 26 times. The amendments of the "Security Services Industry Act" can be divided into partial amendments, amendments due to other law and full amendments The amendments due to other law mean the changes due to other law. The name change of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security is a representative example. Additionally, it was revised due to the changes in “Criminal Act”, “Punishment of Violences, Etc. Act”, “Civil Act”, “Presidential Security Act”, and “Administrative Procedures Act”. However, these amendments mostly did not affect the pur-pose of the "Security Services Industry Act" much. The overall amendment trend was addition and reinforcement, rather than deletion or alleviation. Although it is one of the main subjects responsible for the security of South Korea, it has been growing quantitatively without extending the scope of the private security industry and dele-gating appropriate authorities. In terms of the past 26 revisions, the quantity of it has grown explosively from the enactment in 1976 to 2001, when it finally had the current business areas(i.e., facility security, escort security, personal security, machine security, and special security) and from 2002 to 2012, when the capital requirement was lowered, the responsibility principle began to be applied to the punishment provisions, and the dual task prohibition was removed. It has grown qualitatively from 2013, as regulations were strengthened: the collective civil complaint site was designated, the prohibition period of a sexual criminal was increased, and the prohibition for influencing the hiring of underqualified or unqualified personnel was introduced. The amendments of the “Security Services Industry Act” are supposed to develop the private security to the next sound level, maintain the national order, and protect the social safety. If the private security violates laws or adversely affects the public order, it should be sanctioned and punished strongly. However, it is necessary to give righteous authority and add more tasks such as private investor service or traffic regulation to security guards, as subjects responsible for social safety, for effectively maintaining the national order and protecting social safety effectively.
    Keyword:Security Services Industry Act, Private Security, Social Safety, Enactment and Amendment, South Korea
  • Purpose; Internationally increasing terror risks is no longer an issue of particular states, but of all, unsafe from terrorism at any time. At a point which effective countermeasures against incrementing terrors and cyber terrors, the thesis proposes a Big-Data based Anti-terrorism system. The suggested system captures terror cells via surveillance systems, collects relevant data to the cell, terrorists and their supporters online and offline and analyzes the tremendous amount of data via Big Data, thus maintains high level of monitoring on captured terror cells in accordance with the analysis results or blocks pertaining terror networks transfer all data to the terror response center for elimination of the cells. To effective utilize the anti-terror system proposed in the thesis, cooperation for general citizens and legal supports by the government are necessary for reading and collecting private information. Specialists throughout the world have been asserting, civil and institutional cooperations are essentially required to cope with international crimes and terrors. Measures to keep balance between international security and personal information protection are needed.
    Keyword:Crime Prevention, Terror, Big Data, Data Mining, Network
  • The research analyzes relevant risk factors to crime prevention among safety elements, reducing life quality index of Jecheon-si citizens, and direct causal factors in cause and effect relationship, hence accordingly suggests a safe city construction plan via joint citizen, the government and the academia network cooperation. To achieve such an objective, correlations between crime types and rates in Jecheon, in Chungcheongbuk do province and in all cities are comparatively analyzed. Proposing effective safety measures against crimes based on the research results of Jecheon, characteristic analysis of crime occurrences in Jecheon an d its tailored anti crime safety module system should be established, through practices by joint cooperation among citizen, the government and the academia network. Then, according to regional crime types in Jecheon, various crime prevention programs will actively need to be developed and operated.
    Keyword:Crime Prevention, Jecheon-si, Regional Characteristic, Anti-Crime Safety Model, Citizen
  • This study was designed to identify the perception towards social minorities and the variables which influence such perception for 230 preliminary police trainees of the Central Police Academy. The data were collected through the survey questionnaires and a multiple regression analysis was performed to conduct frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, and learn about the sense of social distance. The analytical results are as follows. The average value of the sense of social distance towards sexual minorities perceived by the police trainees was 3.65 or higher, whose average difference was not clear, yet the average value(3.07) was lower than the other questions for the questions on whether they are acceptable as members of the family. Examining the results of the final regression analysis performed, it was shown that social minorities related training experience, stereotypes about sexual minorities, and negative emotions about sexual minorities had a significant influence on the police trainees’ sense of social distance towards sexual minorities. This indicated that those with the training experience related to social minorities had a less sense of distance, and that the more and higher the stereotypes and negative emotions towards sexual minorities, the larger the sense of social distance. This study is meaningful in that it presented the relationship between the sense of social distance and the factors of influence about the sexual minorities for the police trainees who will become the preliminary police officers.
    Keyword:Sexual Minorities, Preliminary Police Officers, Sense of Social Distance, Negative Emotions, Negative Stereotypes
  • The thesis aims at proposing countermeasures against verbal violence at school with its causes segmented into educational psychology and social aspects by identifying conditions of children from multi-cultural family suffering from verbal violence at school through psychological and social analysis to have the children be involved into senses of belonging and identity, not only at school but also in Korean society, from a macroscopic perspective. Therefore, the research monitored the school violence conditions against children from multi-cultural families and pertinent countermeasures, and identified the seriousness of, particularly, verbal violence among various school violence against the children, based on the result of 2015 National Multi-cultural Family Condition Survey. Verbal violence induces serious damage to the character of victims and it leads to further negative influences not only on psychological but also physical manners in daily lives, suffering from anger, helplessness, demoralization and senses of outrage and humiliation. The research analyzed the causes of such verbal violence from psychological and social perspectives based on school verbal violence conditions of children from multi-cultural family. Psychologically, it is analyzed as desire to raise self-esteem, exposure to anger, compensation to inferiority anger, emotional tension relief and defense mechanism to physical violence control of a speaker. From social perspective, it is analyzed as a mean of fellowship reinforcement, disclosure of authority and mechanism to maintain interpersonal relationship via interest inducement. As countermeasures against school verbal violence, a campaign to eliminate school verbal violence and a mentor system and humanistic education associated with various social institutions executed by the police are discussed, and needs of language programs and multi-cultural education to prevent school verbal violence are suggested from psychological and social manners respectively.
    Keyword:Crime Prevention, Children from Multi-Cultural Family, School Violence, Verbal Violence, Multi-Cultural Education
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze present condition and problem of game rating system in Korea. Consequently this study will offer effective ways to review rating and to reduce on-line crime. As the technology of game consoles advances and the age brackets of game consumers expand, computer and video games have been diversified both in content and expressions. Given this phenomenon, social requirements have intensified, and a typical requirement is related to the influence that the content of a game may have on young people. In reality, increase of on-line game user caused various social problem. In addition, item-related crime of on-line has been increased lately because of growing on line market. In connection with this situation, the academic world has been interested in the game rating system to control social problems of online-games effectively. To fulfill those social need, the Game Rating and Administration Committee was established in December, 2013 under The Game Industry Promotion Act(abbreviated as Games Act) as a public organization for fostering the sound game culture and developing the game industry in Korea. In rating games or entertainment software pursuant to Article 21 of the Games Act, the Game Ratings Board shall ensure the ethical and public nature of games, protect children and youth, and respect the creativity and autonomy of the games. Games provided under Article 2 subparagraph 1 of the Games Act shall be reviewed by the Board when they are produced for sale or provision for use. Korean game rating system is the advanced system to control social problems of online-games effectively. But reform measures have to be asked to solve the performance problems. We suggest the followings. First, to pass on information to game rating, the introduction of various cooperation strengthening method like ESRB is required, and all this depends on the growth of partnership. Second, it is required content descriptor regulations to prevent the game addiction of users. Addiction criteria for games shall be by internet game addiction diagnostic scale. Third, The Game Act will need to be updated to reflect recent changes in Korean game culture similar to the CERO in Japan. Finally, rating system in Korea is not considering Interactive Elements. And with the introduction of Interactive Elements, game users will have greater information of on-line games.
    Keyword:Game Crime, Juvenile Delinquency, Game Rating, GRAC, Game Addiction
  • The main goal in this study was to assess the impacts of social and physical disorders on individual level of informal social control. The data used in this study were collected from 700 male and female respondents living in Daegu Metropolitan City, the third largest city in South Korea. The results from HLM(Hierarchical Linear Regression Model) analysis, unlike previous findings, have shown that community disorder has no effects on informal social control. Both social disorder and physical disorder show no significant effects on informal social control. Meanwhile, residential stability has a significantly positive impact on informal social control. In addition, among demographic variables, gender and age are significant predictors. The male respondents are more likely to respond the higher level of informal social control than the females. Age is also positively related to the level of informal social control. This study in this field of research is almost the first attempt to apply for HLM statistical technique in South Korea. It is needed more researches to use the nested data for studying community and social problems in South Korean Community of Criminal Justice and Criminology.
    Keyword:Community, Disorder, Informal Social Control, Residential Stability, Concentrated Disadvantage