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The Effect of LEARNED HELPLESSNESS on the Adaptation to College Life

Vol.6 (No.2) 2021
2021-06-30 15:22


Purpose: College life is perhaps the largest task of college students during the late period of their youth in their developmental phase, which is also a crucial task directly leading to their future satisfaction of life. However, college students in Korea are admitted without a proper preparation due to their academic centric education and blind focus on grades and scores, thereby undergoing much confusion in the process. This paper presents data of importance to help a successful adaptation to college life by clarifying the effect of the learned helplessness formed through the repeated failures on the adaptation to college life in detail. While previous studies have been limited on the effect of the learned helplessness on the learning process, this study seeks to specifically verify the effect on the adaptation to college life.
Method: By undertaking reference research, the factors impeding the successful adaptation to college life are identified, while the concept, characteristics, and the basic aspects of the factors are summarized, and how the factors cause a negative effect on the adaptation to college life is clarified in detail.
Result: Learned helplessness brings about negative predictions even under new circumstances even while repeated failures are experienced. The negative expectations formed as such cause the loss of new attempts or practical behaviors, thereby gravely impeding the behavioral practice required for the adaptation to college life. This further causes a serious negative impact on the formation of self identity and career path development. To form the self identity and develop an appropriate career path, one needs to have a positive attitude and find and practice various activities, yet being trapped in the learned helplessness causes passive attitude, negatively impacting the achievement of any developmental task. Moreover, learned helplessness causes negative emotions including dpression and anxiety, while impeding the emotional adaptation to college life.
Conclusion: As examined throughout this study, it was discovered that the learned helplessness causes a negative impact on the adaptation to college life across various areas. Therefore, colleges and universities ought to actively make efforts for the successful adaptation to college life by rolling out various programs which can help their students address the learned helplessness.

Keyword:Learned Helplessness, Adaptation to College Life, Negative Expectation, Depression, Anxiety
  • Purpose: Given the reality where the North Korean defectors are struggling in the South Korean society matters much to the security police activities of South Korea, which manage them. Among the general characteristics of the security police, it is intended to examine and understand the differences in the perception of the North Korean defectors of the security police according to the number of employees within the police organization and their service location following the urbanization due to the South Korean economic growth. Method: As for the data processing of this study, the frequency analysis was performed to identify the general characteristics of the police officers serving at the security department among the police organizations of South Korea in 2020 by using the SPSS 23.0 program, while the Cronbach’s a coefficient was calculated by selecting 91 questions for 100 people, and the One Way ANOVA and t-Test were performed to examine and learn about the differences in the perceptions of the security police towards the North Korean defectors according to the number of employees of the police organization and their service location. Results: As a result of this study, it turned out that the perception of the North Korean defectors varied according to the number of employees of the security police organization managing the North Korean defectors. Furthermore, it turned out that there is a difference in the perception of the North Korean defectors according to the service location of the security police organization in large cities and small to medium sized cities of the security police. Conclusion: Since the North Korean defectors, who are accustomed to communism, are struggling with their adapting to the South Korean capitalist economy, it would be necessary to prepare a system which will facilitate and enable sustainable economic activities, and also build various crisis management systems in South Korea in preparations for the collapse of the North Korean regime.
    Keyword:North Korean Defectors, Security Police, Perceptions, Number of Employees, Service Locations
  • Purpose: This study examines the wave energy relationship between the chakra system and aromatherapy and explains that aromatherapy has an organic relationship as a holistic therapy of the chakra system. It is also intended to identify the possibility of use as wave medicine through the energy mechanisms of chakra and aroma. Method: For the purposes of this study, we examined the principles of the chakra system and aromatherapy and integrated literature theorem and examination to explore how the two systems interact organically with wave energy. Results: In terms of wave energy, our bodies are energy structures based on chakra and aura as energy systems in addition to physiological and chemical aspects. This energy structure is influencing and influenced by thoughts and emotions and affects the chemical structure and cells of our bodies. Human beings are alive because their vitality flows through the body, which is controlled by an energy center called chakra. Each chakra has a constant motion and resonates with aroma essential oil at a particular frequency. Most healing mechanisms involve the exchange of energy. Chakra acts as an information receiver that draws wave energy directly from the surroundings when the surrounding waves become suitable for each individual's frequency. Aroma is associated with healing applications to the human body depending on the part of extraction off a plant. Plants receive the information energy of the earth and spread it to the world, and humans receive the energy and give the energy of the sky to the earth. Conclusion: These wave energy aspects of chakra systems and aromatherapy can be expected to harmonize with physical, psychological, spiritual balance and are of sufficient value in wave medicine.
    Keyword:Aromatherapy, Chakra, Aroma, Wave Energy, Wave Medicine
  • Purpose: Given the expansion of online and contactless centric corporate activities due to COVID-19, in order to derive a systematic strategy for the Korean ICT companies' contactless manner of overseas market entry, it is intended to present the differences among strategies according to the growth stage of the ICT companies. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted by targeting major ICT companies of Korea. Based on which, attempt has been made to verify the status of overseas market entry and the level of technological development of the major Korean ICT companies, while verifying the strategies required for the overseas market entry by each growth stage. Results: The manner of overseas market entry turned out to vary depending on each company's growth stage. Accordingly, in the survey of the difficulties during the overseas market entry, varying difficulties were experienced depending on the growth stage of the company. The ICT companies of the entry stage noted the issue of finding customers as a difficulty, and the ICT companies of the growth and maturity stages noted the “lack of trade specialists.” It was also analyzed that the awareness of government support was low, demonstrating the limitations of comprehensive government support policies. Lastly, it was analyzed that differences arose in the current status of responding to COVID-19 and the difficulties depending on the growth stage of the company. It was verified that the awareness of the government's support policy for the ICT companies was low, which was not properly utilized, thereby further confirming that a policy alternative is needed. Conclusion: Consequently, it is necessary to change the overseas market entry support policy for the ICT companies focused on the overseas base centers, which have previously been operated primarily by the suppliers, to the consumer centric, whereby the ICT companies could expand by considering the overseas market entry together from the early stage of growth.
    Keyword:ICT Company, Expansion Strategy, COVID-19, Overseas Market, Effectuation Theory
  • Purpose: In order to successfully establish a self-governing police system, police work, which has been greatly expanded compared to the past, must be effectively performed. Therefore, policy measures that can expand not only formal community governance in which local residents participate but also various informal governance should be sought from now on. Method: This study examines the need and current state of a participation system for the secure establishment and expansion of an autonomous police system, and examines policy measures to increase resident participation in Korea in the future. Results: Regarding the study results, as a policy alternative for the successful establishment of an autonomous police system, first, in order to expand the institutional mechanism for an autonomous police system led by local residents, it is considered necessary to expand their participation in the provincial autonomous police committees, and to introduce a resident recommendation system for the heads of local police departments. Second, in order to strengthen a security network based on public-private cooperation centered on local residents, the systematic operation of an autonomous crime prevention squad and the operation of a Police Development Council should be improved through the enactment of related laws. Third, it was observed that a network consultative body should be established, an advisory group for local residents should be formed, and the operation should be expanded. Conclusion: This study, ultimately, pretends to present resident-led administration as the most important value of the autonomous police system. In addition, citizens and local residents are the most important actors not only in the autonomous police system, but in all administrative functions of the state and local governments. In order to create a genuine 'policing cooperation ecosystem' that can discover the demand for public security suitable to the local characteristics through an autonomous police system and guarantee the democracy and resident-oriented nature of police activities, local governments and the police must cooperate and connect with resident-centered governance.
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the antibacterial properties of hemp fiber pillowcases, and after analyzing the superiority of the hemp fiber pillowcases before and after use and through IPA, marketing plan for hemp fiber pillowcases applying the research results would like to propose. Method: In order to achieve this objective, a corresponding sample T-test and IP matrix were prepared to investigate the difference between the antibacterial test and the functionality of bamboo fibers. Results: The research results and implications through empirical analysis are presented as follows. First, the antibacterial properties of bamboo fibers against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and pneumococcus are 99.9%, and it has been found that bamboo fiber is a material with excellent utility as a pillow cover, so it can be said that commercialization is possible. Second, as a result of the corresponding sample T-test, it was found that there were significant differences in convenience, hygiene, and fragrance in order to examine the difference in the functionality of bamboo fibers before and after use. This means that the hemp fiber pillow cover is highly hygienic with excellent single-use convenience and antibacterial properties, and the fragrance is an item that needs improvement. Therefore, for commercialization, it is necessary to further develop convenience and hygiene and to conduct research and development to control fragrance. Third, among the functional items of the bamboo fiber pillow cover by IPA, ventilation, material, cleanliness, convenience, feel, hygiene, and dryness showed high satisfaction, and fragrance was found to be an item that needs improvement. Therefore, bamboo fiber is used as a pillow cover, and it can be said that it is a very suitable material in terms of antibacterial properties and functionality. Conclusion: Therefore, bamboo fiber is used as a pillow cover, and it can be said that it is a very suitable material in terms of antibacterial properties and functionality.
  • Purpose: Since lethargic people express a belief that they are unable to control themselves over some issues and matters, their passivity further elevates, their expectations and motivation for the future fall, and their capacity for performance diminishes. Therefore, it may be viewed that collective art therapy could change negative perceptions and behaviors by conducting group interaction and successful experiences in the process of art therapy. This paper seeks to specifically verify the impact on the learned lethargy formed via repeated failures by utilizing the collective art therapy, which is found to be very useful among the various techniques of treatment which might help address internal issues. Method: Uncover the factors of the learned lethargy through references, organizes the concepts, characteristics, and the basic aspects of the factors, and articulate and specify the negative impact on the learned lethargy in detail. Results: The collective art therapy assists one to address issues via deep insights to one’s inner self, encourages one to enhance one’s self-esteem by having a positive self-image, and through interactions by and among the members of group, the process of self-discovery largely contributes to improving one’s self-esteem. It was discovered that, by conducting the collective art therapy, group interactions and successful experiences of the art therapy not only change the negative cognitions and behaviors, but also help achieve a proactive attitude, which is a departure from a depressive behavior studies and a passive attitude. Conclusion: It was discovered that being tamed for the learned lethargy causes a negative impact across various areas and negative emotions including depression and anxiety. Therefore, through this study, the collective art therapy programs will need to proactively endeavor to ensure that the collective art therapy program delivers a sense of achievement for human growth, convert negative motivations into positive motivations, and that the program is used even more diversely for addressing practical issues.
    Keyword:Art Therapy, Learned Lethargy, Group Counseling, Self-Esteem, Success Experiences
  • Purpose: A sports agent is continuously developing based on the growth potential thanks to the expansion of the professional sports market, introduction of the free agent system, and the development of mass media across the sports service industry among the modern sports industries. Athletes increasingly need a negotiations expert equipped with professional knowledge and insights related to the sports, contracts, and the economic issues. Therefore, this study is meaningful in that is examines the effect of the sport agent’s perception caused by the sports agent regulations of college students concerning the sports agents capable of providing significant assistance for the college students’ job placement and startup on the expected role and expected job satisfaction, while presenting a future direction for the sports agent’s role and the sports agent fostering institutions’ educational programs. Method: In this study, by having college students as the group as of 2021, the sampling method targeted 380 people by the convenience sampling, and the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method. and 369 questionnaires were used as valid samples, excluding the data in which some of the survey contents were omitted. The data processing for this study was conducted by the frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, factor analysis, and the correlation analysis by using SPSS 25.0 Program, which is a statistical package program. The multiple regression was used. Results: First, as a result of performing the factor analysis and the reliability analysis, the sports agent’s perception consisted of the 3 factors of the recognition factor(α=.752), necessity factor(α=.860), and the expectation factor(α=.831). The factors for the expected role were consisted of the 3 factors of the management factor(α=.862), organizational management factor(α=.746), and the financial management factor(α=.697). The expected job satisfaction was consisted of the 1 factor of the expected job satisfaction(α=.845). Second, as a result of performing the correlation analysis, it was discovered that there exists a relationship between all of the factors. Third, in terms of the effect of the sports agent's perception on the expected role and the expected job satisfaction, awareness, necessity, and expectation of the sports agent's perception influence the goal management, organizational management, and the financial management of the expected role, while the awareness and the necessity of the sports agent's perception and the expectation influence the expected job satisfaction of the expected job satisfaction. The target management of the expected role, organizational management, and the financial management turned out to have an effect on the expected job satisfaction of the expected job satisfaction. Conclusion: The sports agent's perception turned out to have a significant effect on the expected role and the expected job satisfaction. Therefore, the development and implementation of the educational programs related to the launch of a curriculum for fostering the sports agents at colleges and universities, and the theoretical knowledge and field practice for the sports agents to have need to be explored. Along with the improvement of the ability and skills, the students who wish to become sports agents also need to make continuous efforts to improve their foreign language skills and understand laws and regulations to develop their qualifications, and in particular, it is also important for them to have and grow a mindset and attitude for building interpersonal relationship and trust.
    Keyword:Sports Agent, Regulations, Perception, Expected Role, Job Satisfaction
  • Purpose: This study is a descriptive research study attempted to provide basic data with a view to improve the quality of life by identifying the impact on the quality of life for the subjects of local religious community. Prior to the start of the study, a review of the research was requested, and the G-W University Research Ethics Review Committee approved of it. Method: As for the data collection, the final 253 copies were used for the analysis of the adults who attended the retreat. The collected data were analyzed by the descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis, and the multiple regression analysis using the SPSS 25.0 statistical program. Results: As a result of the study, the health promoting lifestyle(r=.431, p<.001), depression(r=-.381, p<.001), religious activities(r=.275, p<.001) and the quality of life were all significant in correlation. The factors influencing the quality of life of the research subjects were the health promoting lifestyle(β=.335, p<.001), depression(β=-.275, p<.001), and the religious activities(β=.144, p=.011), while the explanatory power was 33.0%. Conclusion: Through this study, it is necessary to develop a program which can improve the quality of life along with the continuous religious activities.
    Keyword:Health Promoting, Lifestyle, Depression, Religious Activities, Quality of Life
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to check the status and the actual condition of sports private certificates registration of sports members of the Korea Sports Association after the implementation of the Framework Act on Qualifications and to provide data on how to improve the registration system by deriving non-compliance factors. Method: This study was conducted using qualitative case study methodology based on the literature research methodology, and to derive the results of the study, related literature data on sports private certificates was collected to understand the activity content and status. It collected materials through academic papers, reports, books, cases, media articles, and Internet searches, and conducted in-depth interviews with analysis of literature materials to find current status of issuance, operational status, and how to improve. Research participants were selected and data were collected to explore specific research methods for the study. Results: First, it was found that after the special announcement of the Korea Sports Association, the qualification registration of from 6 Korea Sports Association affiliated organizations in 2018 to 19 in 2019 were surveyed, and it has been steadily increasing so far, affecting the awareness of the registration system, but detailed management measures are needed. Second, non-affiliated organizations have as many as 40 sports registration courses in the order of gymnastics, golf, and swimming, and gymnastics are issued by 114 organizations with the popularisation of health gymnastics and job prospects expected, suggesting an increase in the number of issuers, and it aims at promoting it to a private official recognition qualification by securing public confidence and managing transparency. Third, the priorities for improving the sports private qualification system were false, exaggerated, and false advertising on the issue of private sports licences, considered the biggest problem. It was found that improvements were needed in the order of a certificate of qualifications and qualification system of unregistered publishing organizations, lack of linked education after obtaining qualifications, and poor operation of educational training institutions. As a way to raise awareness of sports private certificates, legal action by unregistered institutions is most urgent, followed by various strategic measures for publicity boost, inducement of registration through intervention of relevant ministries(Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism), and establishment of a system for nurturing professional qualification personnel.. Fourth, establishment of an exclusive management department of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Korea Sports Council are the most urgent tasks to create a sports private qualification system, and measures need to be taken in the order of improvement of law for qualification system and the system, continuous research, and government intervention. Conclusion: According to this study, a sports private qualification system can be improved, first, through detailed management measures, secondly, through public confidence and transparency management, thirdly, by improving poor operation of private certificates and creating strategic measures through relevant ministries' intervention, fourthly, by establishing a dedicated management department to create a sports private qualification system and by improving the qualification system law and system and regulation of the qualification market through government intervention.
    Keyword:Improvement, Private, Qualification, Certificate, Sports
  • Purpose: In this study, it look in to the direction of smart healthcare in Korea and would like to make sure possibility of healthcare service in non-medical area. In this contents, when non healthcare provider provide medical healthcare service in Korean, it can be judged what to be against the medical treatment action, furthermore, through the utilization of smart healthcare, it would be helpful to identify in the broaden professional behavior and business scope. Method: This study was conducted to look over the concept of smart healthcare, the scope of utilization in the non-healthcare service area and then to recognize what the counter strategy can be moved to which way. To achieve the goal of this study, it is confirmed to be referred the bio health report which is issued from Korea Health Industry Development Institute and the non-medical care service guideline and casebook. Results: As a result of the study, first, the introduction and step-by-step factors for establishing a smart health environment that are being implemented in Korea were confirmed. Second, the concept of non-medical healthcare services and detailed classification according to provision were examined. Third, smart healthcare technology trends and usage plans in non-medical healthcare services were confirmed. Conclusion: In order Smart healthcare is grafted with social networks, and unlike the conventional passive and one-sided healthcare services, acceptance and accuracy are expanding based on big data. In addition, the active participation of users is expected to induce cooperation, creating high-quality services and providing multi-dimensional services. Therefore, in the future, it is expected that the composition of an appropriate execution program in the non-medical healthcare service area will create various values ​​in the local community.
    Keyword:Smart Health, Non-Medical Healthcare Service, Medical Practice, Smart Element, Technology Trend