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A Study on the Establishment of the Concept of a Vessel Constrained by Her Air Draft in COLREG

Vol.2 (No.2) 2017
Author
admin
Date
2017-12-30 12:04
Views
435

Abstract


A vessel with high air draft cannot operate without restriction on manoeuvring in certain height-limited areas. As electricity supply has been possible to island areas, and bridges connecting islands to the mainland or islands to islands are constructed, instances where because of her air draft a vessel is restricted in her ability to deviate from the course she is following(Hereafter “vessel constrained by her air draft”) are increased.
This paper reviewed whether the current sailing and steering rules in International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972(COLREG) can be properly applicable to the navigation of vessel constrained by her air draft. Firstly, the possibility of application of the sailing rules of ‘vessel not under command’ and ‘vessel restricted in their ability to manoeuvre’ was examined. Secondly, sailing and steering rules of ‘vessel constrained by her draft’ was considered because she has the similar limitation of navigable water as that of a vessel constrained by her air draft. Finally, it was concluded that she is not a vessel that has lost her manoeuvrability or a vessel whose ability is restricted due to the nature of her work to the extent that she is unable to keep out of the way of another vessel. In addition, compared to a vessel constrained by her draft, she may take more responsibility to give a considerable duty of care to the conduct of other vessels under the present rule.
Therefore, for the sake of seamen who operate a vessel constrained by her air draft, a separate definition needs to be included into COLREG such as that of ' vessel constrained by her draft', and importantly the responsibility relation over other vessels must be enacted in terms of the equal status with that of 'vessel constrained by her draft'.

Keyword:A Vessel Constrained by Her Air Draft, COLREG, A Vessel Constrained by Her Draft, A Vessel not under Command, A Vessel Restricted in Her Ability to Manoeuvre
  • Purpose: As rallies inevitably have a direct impact on social order as a collective freedom of expression, the need for autonomy inherent in basic rights and the need for batting average regulation to maintain social order need to be harmonized with each other. Method: To Study the judicial discussion and improvement of the police line in rellies and demonstrations Results: If a rally, demonstration group, or individual intentionally staged violent demonstrations to carry out their demands and claims by any means, collide with the police, and as a result, the public fully bears the social costs of violent protests, it will only undermine the nation's external image with huge economic losses. Conclusion: For the police responsible for the order of well-being of the nation and the people, strict legal action and concrete countermeasures are required against illegal and violent rallies and demonstrations that turn violent beyond their original intentions, and it is time to review judicial discussions and improvement tasks on the police line.
    Keyword:Police Line, Gathering, Protests, Freedom of Assembly, Control of Assembly Demonstration
  • Purpose: The mining industry is a highly risky field where risk factors impact each other much. Mining is the leading branch of the economy of Mongolia. Rural areas in Mongolia isn't well developed and the country's population is not crowded mining industry is so risky. And also the risk factors in the Mongolian mining field are highly impacted by each other made me study a detailed and staged method of risk management. Method: To define mining risk factors we studied the classifications of international experts and made a survey among the mining specialists of Mongolia. Then we defined the risks into 8 factors and 31 subfactors. By the survey research, the logical principle of impact factors was defined. After that, we made a systematic analysis of the dependence between the impact factors and their impacting levels. As the result, we found out a staged design of risk analysis. Results: The result of the Risk Matrix risk analysis showed that the central region mines in Mongolia have a high-risk level and they need a detailed risk assessment. While the WSM analysis result says that most mines have got high management risk, DEMATEL analysis results mines have high risks in subfactors such Organizational structure adaptation, Human error failure. Conclusion: The research result shows that this comprehensive risk method is suitable for making detailed risk analysis in companies liable to high risk and has many influencing impacted risk factors. In this paper, we offered a comprehensive risk analysis method and it was also tested to analyze common risks in Mongolian Central Region Coal Mines. The results of applying the proposed method in a real case study demonstrate that it can effectively handle risk assessment when implementing risk analysis in a Mining organization.
    Keyword:Field Action Manual, Manual Operation Key, Mission, Decision, Disaster Site Information
  • Purpose: The recent correctional administration emphasizes not only aspects of detention-security focused on the execution of prisoners in the past but also the rehabilitation ideology through personality education. A correctional officer who must pursue these two conflicting ideologies at the same time has no choice but to feel a role conflict. Therefore, the focus of this study is to examine role conflicts based on the contradictory role expectations of “punishment ideology” and “rehabilitation ideology” required of correctional officers from the perspective of role conflicts. Method: This study is based on a survey that targeted 431 current correctional officers and the collected questionaries were analyzed by the statistics program of SPSS 22.0. For specific research methods, factor analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of each variable. In addition, ANOVA analysis was conducted for the purpose of proving the research hypothesis to verify the differences in the correctional concepts and role conflicts by the socio-demographic characteristics of correctional officers and the differences in role conflicts according to the correctional orientation. Results: Although the punishment orientation of correctional officers differed depending on age, period of service and first department of work, the rehabilitation orientation differed only in the first department of work, this means that the first department of work was the only common link reinforcing either a punishment and rehabilitation ideology. Also, the more the punishment ideology was followed, the greater the chance that role conflict could be experienced. However, there are no difference in role conflicts according to the socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, period of service, current and first department of work. Conclusion: In order to further examine role conflicts of correctional officers, various approaches such as in-depth interviews and panel research will be required. It is also necessary to study various forms of organizational culture to reduce the role conflicts of correctional officers and to efficiently accept contradictory ideologies of punishment and rehabilitation simultaneously.
    Keyword:Correctional Officer, Ideology of Korean Correctional Service, Punishment Ideology, Rehabilitation Ideology, Role Conflict
  • Purpose: In this study, the perception toward leaders' followership by gender and age was analyzed for police officers working at the security police organization, which are recognized as the most closed police organization among young or female police officers. And through this, we would like to discuss policy measures to create a security police organization with a new followership culture in line with the changing security environment. Method: In this study, 100 police officers working for the security police organization with experience in handling North Korean defector affairs were surveyed via self-administration method to analyze their perception toward leaders' followership according to gender and age. Results: According to the analysis, male security police officers are more positive about their leaders' followership than female police officers for most of the questions that have been statistically significant in terms of gender. And in terms of age, most of the questions are considered to be more positive among older people, while among those who are in their 20s, there is a relatively high level of negative perception. When it comes to gender and age connections, men in their 50s and women in their 30s have the most positive attitude toward their leaders. Conclusion: In conclusion, the culture inside the security police organization should improve so that it can actively accept female security police officers, who account for only 4.6% of the total police force, including external affairs police officers, and thus turn it into a security police organization where female police officers can fully demonstrate their potential and creativity. Second, in order to be reformed as a new security police organization in response to the rapidly changing security environment, a developmental organizational culture of the security police organization should be created, expanding the number of young security police officers, drawing fresh ideas from them and making themselves leaders.
    Keyword:Security Police, Police Officers, Gender, Age, Followership
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting police satisfaction. There are four models explaining police satisfaction. Demographic model, quality of life model, police contact model, and a community context model exist. These models are important explanatory models that predict police satisfaction. There four models are used to predict police satisfaction in this study. Method: The data used in this study was obtained from 924 citizens living in Daegu, Korea. The survey was conducted on adults aged 18 and older. Participants in the survey were informed of the purpose of the survey and agreed. The collected survey was analyzed using the SPSS. The statistical techniques were descriptive statistics, T-test, ANOVA, correlation, and multiple regression. Results: According to the study, among the four explanatory models, the community context model had the highest ability to explain. Police satisfaction was higher for those who responded to be positive about community, live closely with residents, and intervene in local problems. In addition, the more police officers witness deviations, the less satisfied they are, and the more they are required to train police officers in their behavior. Finally, physical disorder of the community was also shown to predict police satisfaction. Conclusion: The most important conclusion in this study is that the context of the community and the behavior of the police officer have a very important effect on police satisfaction by citizens. Therefore, the police should consider the role they can play to strengthen community social cohesion and informal social control. It will also be necessary to learn the importance of each police officer’s right behavior.
    Keyword:Police Satisfaction, Social Cohesion, Informal Social Control, Police Deviance, Police Contact
  • Purpose: Recently Safety Promotion Policies and Programs at the local government level have been spreading around the world. However, In order for these policies to work, objective analysis of factors that threaten the safety of local residents, such as the scale of injuries caused by internal and external factors, should be preceded, and the resident participatory safety promotion program based on them should be expanded. Method: This study looked at the safety status of Gangwon-do through various safety indicators, including the regional safety index and death from injuries, and based on this, contemplated policy measures to secure safety and reduce the risk of injuries in Gangwon-do in the future. Results: Analysis of the regional safety index showed that Gangwon-do was vulnerable in the areas of safety in daily life, suicide, and infectious diseases. In addition, an analysis of the current status of deaths from injuries showed that intentional self-harm, transport accidents, and falls were the man risk factors. Conclusion: To enhance safety and reduce deaths from injuries in Gangwon-do. first, the damage monitoring system at the province level should be operated to produce injury indicators, and second, an integrated safety network and disaster response center involving all related agencies should be established. Third, participation of residents, and fourth, supports programs for the vulnerable in the community should be expanded.
    Keyword:Gangwon-Do Province, Safety, Iinjury, Injury Mortality, Regional Safety Index
  • Purpose; The Korean police are tasked with maintaining the order of security, focusing on the local po-lice, who are both national and closest to residents. It was necessary to systematically identify and take countermeasures against the preventive police, whose psychological status of police officers' psychological contract violations based on organizational changes and employment relations, based on the assumption that the relationship to the organized civic action was negative, and to investigate the organizational Jus-tice of local police officials in Korea and the psychological contract violation factors that were closely relat-ed to their work. The Korean police system, which has changed its organization, suggests that the local police-centered autonomous police system, which is scheduled to be implemented soon, is ideal for local police officers at the level of metropolitan and provincial governments. This should be a discussion on the introduction of a local police-centered autonomous police system based on the will of residents-friendly local residents rather than the introduction of a self-governing police system suitable for the government's policies. This is due to the effective functioning of local police to effectively operate crime prevention and investigation functions of local police to improve the quality of life of residents. Therefore, If the government identifies the organizational fairness of Korean police officers who have a significant impact on organizational civic action and the factors influencing psychological contract violations after the contract, and sets the goal for improvement, it will improve the quality of security services by enhancing the level of organized civic action of Korean police officials. There has been a lot of discussion about autonomous police, but there has been no active discussion among local police officers trying to restructure the Korean police-oriented organization in line with the realization of investigative rights. This led to the need for re-search. The results of this study suggest that the psychological contract violation and organizational Justice of the Korean police can have a significant impact on organizational civic behavior, and that the quality of the security service is expected to be improved by the quality of the police activities of senior officers, police officers, and police officers.
    Keyword:Korean Police Officials, Autonomous Police System, Psychological Contract Violations, Organizational Justice, Organizational Citizenship Behavior
  • The strategy to control and minimize the possibility of potential crimes in advance physically in terms of urban planning and architectural design according to social changes is "Crime Prevention Through Envi-ronmental Design(CPTED)." CPTED began to be applied in the United States in the 1970s and is widely considered in Japan in terms of residential environment planning. And recently, as interest in safe cities or crime prevention cities has increased in Korea, CPTED is being integrated in earnest. However, although the physical environment or components of urban and residential areas in Korea are seemingly similar to those of the West, differences exist in the components. Therefore, it is difficult to incorporate CPTED, which has been studied and devel-oped abroad, into Korean cities. In order to find a more efficient way to create a safe residential environ-ment in reality, we need to understand the characteristics of Korean cities and proceed with the study based on them. The CPTED strategy is more effective if applied when initially planning the residential complex than in im-proving the existing co-residential complex. But this is limited to redevelopment areas such as newly devel-oped towns and cities. In the case of existing co-residential complexes, which may be vulnerable to crime, improvements such as installing additional CCTVs or introducing unmanned crime prevention systems in the complex can have considerable effects. In addition, visibility of the space should be high in order to en-able natural surveillance, and above all, it should be bright by light and lighting fixture and should not be obscured from facilities and landscaping. And we should find ways to limit crime by using security measures and lighting to dampen the criminals' psychology before they commit a crime. This cannot be done with the environmental design alone, so physical means such as professional personnel, unmanned security systems, etc. should be combined. However, simple changes in the physical environment have limitations in reducing crime or the fear of crime. The effect of crime prevention is maximized only when the organic solidarity of the community and the community consciousness of the local residents are preceded. An approach that activates the interac-tion of local communities through the expansion of active participation of residents in local autonomous administration and the vitalization of youth and women's activities should be pursued simultaneously with CPTED. In this regard, it is important to cooperate with local residents, police, local governments, local councils, and civic groups.
    Keyword:CPTED, Cooperative Security, CCTV, Urban Planning, Architectural Design
  • Background/Objectives; Indiscriminate and brutal crimes have occurred in our recently society. Among the crimes, recidivism of sexual crimes by sex offenders even with their electronic anklets increases, hence an improvement plan is urgently required in such a condition, which the effectiveness of the anklets, in ef-fect, is being questioned and challenged. This study recognizes the severity of the recidivistic and retaliato-ry crimes and proposes a sexual violence response system, an upgraded variation, via IOT-based smart de-vices, resolving problems in the existing model and enabling responses against sexual violence. Methods/Statistical analysis; The proposal model of sexual crime response system with IOT-based smart devices consists of 5 parts – Data collection and comparative analysis module, crime response module-sex offender response module/crime victim response module, Integrated D/B and posterior utility D/B. This sys-tem has the phased crime response mode activated to practice sex offender response when a sign of crimi-nal recidivism is captured and a crime sign is detected via attachment of Smart Electronic monitoring An-klets with various IOT-based sensors mounted, on ankles of the sex offenders. Simultaneously, to prevent recidivism by the sex offenders, the sexual violence victims are instructed to wear Smart Electronic Bracelet thereby, the states of the offenders are analyzed, and any recidivistic and criminal injury on the sexual vio-lence victims is minimized via operations of the phased crime victim response module when an injury occur-rence is detected. Findings; While the existing model only collected the sex offender data, the proposal model collects not only the offender data but also the sexual violence victim data through Smart Electronic monitoring Anklet and Smart Electronic Bracelet, thus more accurate prediction against crimes is enabled via the more ex-panded data collection. The proposal model, involving Smart Electronic monitoring Anklet and Smart Elec-tronic Bracelet, allowed a preventive sexual violence victim response mode, as well as the crime response mode coping with recidivism by sex offenders, by analyzing the data from both the offenders and the vic-tims. In manners of crime response patterns, the existing model only comparatively analyze the collected offender data and gradually operate the phased crime response module against the offender, while the proposed model distinguishes itself by operating response modules of both sex offenders and sexual vio-lence victims, having data of the both collected and analyzed. Improvements/Applications; Sexual violence response system with IOT-based smart devices, the pro-posal model, allows more accurate crime prediction via diversified data collection through Smart Electronic monitoring Anklets and Smart Electronic Bracelets, unlike the existing model and the current Electronic An-klet system being run by the Ministry of Justice. Moreover, by operating crime response modes – one al-lowing rapid response against recidivism to sexual crime victims and the other preventing recidivism based on analysis, the proposal has a difference in the extent of probable crime injury from sexual violence.
    Keyword:IOT, Smart Device, Smart Electronic Monitoring Anklet, Smart Electronic Bracelet, Sexual Vio-lence
  • Police must always remain resilient and changeable to respond to environmental changes. The acquisi-tion of new knowledge and skills is inevitable, and furthermore, it is very important to induce changes in the perception, values, attitudes and behavior of individual police officers in order to cope with environ-mental changes and execute necessary tasks through education and training. Recently, police have been called on to deal effectively and actively with the situation of limiting materi-al and human resources along with increasing quantity and quality of crime, increasing the people's desire for safety and improving the expected level of police activities. At this point, the police should secure and train new police officers with professional and professional views to meet the expectations of the people. More than 95 percent of the nation's police officers are educated, trained at National Central Police Academy and assigned to practice. Most police officers working at the front line are being deployed through the education of the National Central Police Academy. Given this, we can see that the direction of education and its role of the National Central Police Academy are very important. However, the current National Central Police Academy is operated on the basis of regulation on educa-tion and training of police officials, which poses a major problem in securing legal stability. In addition, despite the importance of education for newly recruited police officers and the aforementioned problems, the reality is that there is a lack of prior research related to this. Therefore, prior studies were reviewed in this study to derive ways to improve the education system for Newly Recruited Police officers. Through prior research review, the enactment of National Central Police Academy establishment act and the improvement of the police education system were proposed. First, the National Central Police Academy establishment act will have to be enacted. Second, the expert professor system will have to be established. Finally, field-oriented education should be activated.
    Keyword:Police, Education, Newly Recruited Police Officers, National Central Police Academy, Expert Pro-fessor System