All Articles

The Paraprostatic Cyst in a Male Belgian Malinois MILITARY Working Dog

Vol.6 (No.3) 2021
Author
admin
Date
2021-09-30 10:42
Views
31

Abstract


Purpose: The paraprostatic cyst is a rare disease of the prostate gland in the intact male dog. This report describes the physical examination, laboratory inspection, radiographic, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings of the paraprostatic cyst in an intact male Belgian Malinois Military Working dog. Based on the previously reported research, this paper intended to verify that military working dogs can be diagnosed and treated in the same way.
Method: A 9-year-old intact male Belgian Malinois military working dog was presented for regular check-ups in the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Armed Forces Medical Research Institute. Physical examinations, whole blood cell test, serum and electrolyte tests, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography were conducted.
Results: Using radiography, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a paraprostatic cyst was diagnosed. The dog underwent neutering surgery only. One month after the surgery, the dog was brought in for a follow-up. The previously observed large paraprostatic cyst was not evident in the area of the urinary bladder with ultrasonography. The treatment was deemed to have reduced the size of the cysts adjacent to the prostate as the prostate became smaller. Neutralization surgery was confirmed to be an effective treatment for diseases of the male genital system of aging dogs. It was also determined that male military dogs needed neutralization surgery at the age of six months, a positive stage, to prevent male genital disease.
Conclusion: Unlike ordinary dogs, regular medical check-ups of military working dogs are recommended because it is difficult to monitor their health. And neutering surgery at the time of disease diagnosis is recommended to treat and prevent the prostate-related disease for intact male dogs, especially for those beyond the age of six months.

Keyword:Cysts, Military Working Dogs, Radiography, Tomography, Ultrasonography
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to explore aerospace power development strategies promoted by the Republic of Korea Air Force(ROKAF), and to examine the necessity and tasks of strengthening space power, focusing on the main content of Air Force Quantum 5.0, an innovative task for ROKAF from the perspective of smart national defense innovation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution(4IR) era. The main contents of the 4IR and the concept of space power dealt with in Air Force Quantum 5.0 were set as the scope of research. Method: For better analysis, as part of case studies, the article is to analyze literature with a focus on research analysis materials regarding the concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, policy reports on Air Force Quantum 5.0 promoted by the ROKAF, and academic papers. Results: It is required for the ROKAF to establish an advanced power system for aerospace operations in response to future warfare, such as securing key leading technologies for weapon systems using 4IR technologies, identifying military capabilities and core forces, reflecting them in the future force integration, and promoting civil-military R&D cooperation systems. It also needs to establish a space command and take the lead in the future joint battlefield area in order to establish itself as a space powerhouse like the surrounding powers, including the United States and China. Conclusion: This article concluded that in order for the ROKAF to further respond to uncertain security threats, consider work innovation and combat power enhancement, overcome increasing challenge factors such as the deepening shortages of military service resources, and adapt to the future battle field environment, advanced 4IR technologies should be applied in all branches of the air force to ensure the military remains sophisticated and intelligent, and to speed up the promotion of high-efficient aerospace operation systems and defense operation environment.
    Keyword:Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Defense Innovation, Space Security, Aerospace Power, Air Force Quantum 5.0
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the main presentations, ideas and classifications of the new wars that have occurred during these first years of the 21st century, and what will be the nature, type and / or classification of the warlike conflagrations that they will have to happen in the coming years of this century, these conflicts are a sample of the level of evolution of political, strategic, economic, military, diplomatic and cultural thought in society. Method: This converges three research methods: 1)Qualitative research focusing on the research process 2)Literature research according to the characteristics of the purpose 3)Technical research on the level of knowledge achieved. It is a qualitative study that analyzes the way war progresses and the evolution of political-strategic thinking, and this approach allows us to visualize the future of warfare in the 21st century and how it will be used. Results: Humanity faces a revolution in strategic thinking, characterized by military actions that are displaced from their main and directing role in the course of the war, giving rise to different types of warfare planned with the common denominator of using integrated attacks, aimed at exploiting different sources of vulnerabilities, facilitating the exploitation of more and more non-military measures, including economic reprisals, propaganda, political subversion and the use of the media of social communication and mainly cyberspace, this being a real new form of warfare. Conclusion: The new wars of the 21st century are being presented with new multi-causal characteristics(violent, interactive nature and ideological foundation), another characteristic of these multidimensional conflicts is their way of waging war, the participation of new non-state actors, non-military third parties but with interests and active participation in war actions, facilitating the use of asymmetries, a mixture of all the old characteristics, imply new terms such as hybrid and fifth generation wars.
    Keyword:Map of Violence, War, Asymmetric, Hybrid, Unrestricted
  • Purpose: This study aims to analyze the wins and losses of the war through major battles of the First Chechen War and find implications for understanding the continuously evolving modern warfare (conflict) and establishing readiness for it. From the results of the win-loss analysis of the various battles, we want to learn how the weak against the strong should prepare for the battle. In addition, based on the understanding of how to conduct combat under the division level and the results, we would like to gain implications in establishing the direction of education and training for the Korean military. Method: The main battle of the First Chechen War was analyzed to derive a lesson about the war. To this end, the battle of Gudermes, Bamut, and Yarshymardy, which were the fiercest battles of the Chechen War, was selected to analyze the victory and defeat in terms of combat history. The Battle of Gudermes and the Battle of Bamut were analyzed from the perspective of Russia, while the Battle of Yarshymardy was analyzed from the perspective of Chechen to draw lessons. Results: Russia failed to lead to victory and ended in a cease-fire despite the large deployment of troops and equip-ment in the First Chechen War. They suffered from lack of preparation for the war, soldiers' posture in battle, and lack of tactics, hurting their pride as a powerful nation. On the other hand, Chechen forces fought a decisive battle to build their own independent nation despite the difficulties and tried to overcome the inferiority of their forces. The Chechen military's decisive battle caused a lot of damage against the Russian army and eventually resulted in a ceasefire. Conclusion: The main battles of the First Chechen War shows what the consequences will be if pursued without preparation only based on the logic of politics and power. And it also shows how an underdog can lead an unfavorable situation to its advantage. The security situation on the Korean Peninsula is that South Korea confronts North Korea and is surrounded by major powers. In this situation, we can look back on our reality and get the practical implications necessary to prepare for the changing modern warfare and the future battlefield.
    Keyword:First Chechen War, Winning and Losing Factors, War History, Chechen Military, Russian Military
  • Purpose: This study has examined and validated the differences in the perceptions towards North Korean refugees among the police officers of the South Korean security police organization in charge of the North Korean refugees at a point in time where North Korean are entering South Korea due to the recent economic downfall of North Korea, and through which, has explored the security police's perception towards the North Korean refugees. In particular, this study focused on how the perception towards the North Korean refugees differs as per the gender and age of the security police officers in connection with the adaptation of the North Korean refugees in South Korea. Method: In this study, to examine and validate how the perception towards the North Korean refugees varies by the gender and age of the police officers in the security police department, a survey was conducted by using the self-administration method targeting 100 trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute, which is the police training institution of Korea, among the police officers of the security department experienced in the work related to the North Korean refugees by recruiting Korean police officers in 2020. As for the analytical method, the frequency analysis, t-test, and the one way ANOVA were performed. Results: In Q-1 “North Korean refugees are satisfied with their lives in South Korea” and Q-27 “Understanding vocational training is the most necessary education for North Korean refugees to adapt to the South Korean society,” and in Q-1(2.5902±.66776) and Q-27(3.3443±.68032), men turned out to be higher than women at the significance level of 5%. Subsequently, in Q-21 “The reason the North Korean refugees visit South Korean police stations is because they have been defrauded or assaulted by someone,” those in their 20s(3.8571±.37796) turned out to be higher than those in their 40s(3.0333±.66868) at the significance level of 5%. Conclusion: Among the South Korean police officers, men perceived more than women that the North Korean refugees are satisfied with their lives in South Korea, and vocational training is an important education necessary for them to adapt to their lives in South Korea. Furthermore, police officers in their 20s perceived more than those in their 40s that the North Korean refugees have been defrauded or assaulted by someone.
    Keyword:North Korean Refugees, Vocational Training, Mandate Refugee, Security Police, North Korean Economy
  • Purpose: Police officers on the site continue to suffer from sudden attacks. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the thought of presenting an effective model for the manual of the exercise of physical force as per the legitimacy of police law enforcement. Method: According to the extent of harm and damages, the subject's behavior demonstrated towards police officers is divided into the 5 stages of ① compliance, ② passive resistance, ③ active resistance, ④ violent attack, and ⑤ fatal attack, and as for the experiment appropriate thereto, the students of the Korean National Police University and trainees were divided into Groups A and B each with 20 people, while the type of responding with fatal attack and the type of club for self defense and response were analyzed. Results: (1)On the site, a minimum safety distance of 1.8M must be maintained, and (2)police officers must provide a clear task assignment training on the site that 2 or more people will be dispatched. (3)The development of a posture to not unnecessarily stimulate the subject was presented, and (4)a new method for the striking method was presented by considering the fact that most subjects had their hands lowered. Conclusion: The practical effectiveness reflective of the principle of objective rationality, principle of correspondence between the subject's actions and physical force, and the principle of prioritizing harm reductions, which are the 3 largest principles of the police officer's exercise of physical force, was presented, and a model for protecting the lives and bodies of police officers was presented by defining the limitations and significance of each method of physical force.
    Keyword:National Police, Fatal Attack Against Police Officer, Self Defense Arrest Technique, Job Manual, Effective Response
  • Purpose: The paraprostatic cyst is a rare disease of the prostate gland in the intact male dog. This report describes the physical examination, laboratory inspection, radiographic, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings of the paraprostatic cyst in an intact male Belgian Malinois Military Working dog. Based on the previously reported research, this paper intended to verify that military working dogs can be diagnosed and treated in the same way. Method: A 9-year-old intact male Belgian Malinois military working dog was presented for regular check-ups in the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Armed Forces Medical Research Institute. Physical examinations, whole blood cell test, serum and electrolyte tests, radiography, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography were conducted. Results: Using radiography, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, a paraprostatic cyst was diagnosed. The dog underwent neutering surgery only. One month after the surgery, the dog was brought in for a follow-up. The previously observed large paraprostatic cyst was not evident in the area of the urinary bladder with ultrasonography. The treatment was deemed to have reduced the size of the cysts adjacent to the prostate as the prostate became smaller. Neutralization surgery was confirmed to be an effective treatment for diseases of the male genital system of aging dogs. It was also determined that male military dogs needed neutralization surgery at the age of six months, a positive stage, to prevent male genital disease. Conclusion: Unlike ordinary dogs, regular medical check-ups of military working dogs are recommended because it is difficult to monitor their health. And neutering surgery at the time of disease diagnosis is recommended to treat and prevent the prostate-related disease for intact male dogs, especially for those beyond the age of six months.
    Keyword:Cysts, Military Working Dogs, Radiography, Tomography, Ultrasonography
  • Purpose: This study aims to examine the security perspective of the first president Rhee Syngman of ROK and bring some implications in making defense policy making. Method: This paper utilizes multidisciplinary approach. This contains the perspective of threat, allies, defense policy, independent defense. Specifically this uses various speeches, interviews, memoirs, and testimonies about and by Rhee Syngman. Results: This paper did find out that President Syngman Rhee not only had a firm view against communism, but also maintained a thorough anti-Japanese view against Japan. However, the Korea-US Mutual Defense Treaty and the resulting South Korea-U.S. alliance, which were agreed upon with the U.S. during the Korean War. And his security perspective could actually play a major role in curbing the recurrence of the war on the Korean Peninsula and securing South Korea's sustainability and security. Conclusion: The first President Rhee Syngman had tried to devote his best efforts to settle down Korea’s solid dynamic security through closely good friendship with US. To make this objective he took very a serious vigilance and concerns to North Korea and the revival of expansionist Japanese militarism. As a first president of ROK, he made fundamental base of ROK and its security.
    Keyword:Rhee Syngman, Security Perspective, Defense Policy, Independent Defense, Korea-Us Mutual Defense Treaty
  • Purpose: This pater proposes a plan to expand the role of Regional Reserve Forces(RRF) as a key mobilization force for regional defense, in the event of a national disaster, and to more effectively support the disaster response of the local community. It also proposes a desirable policy direction for the advancement of cooperative governance of local communities on disasters toward international cooperative security against non-traditional threats. Method: Firstly, it analyzed laws and regulations related to disaster and RRF, and then reviewed the reality of the organization and formation of Regional Defense Battalions(RDB), Local Government’s Disaster & Safety Countermeasures Headquarters(DSCHQ), Defense Integrated Disaster Management Information System(DIDMIS), and compensation costs, etc. In addition, the analysis of Disaster Mobilization cases and the opinions of experts were reflected. Results: ‘The disaster mobilization of RRF must be clearly and concretely presented in relevant laws and regulations. Mobilization requirements give flexibility to mobilize from the beginning of the disaster, but the deadline must be strictly specified. If Part-time Reservist are employed as liaison officers, disaster officers, and military affairs cooperation officers of local governments, it is possible to expect not only the disaster management of local governments but also the development of the Regional Integrated Defense System(RIDS). Conclusion: One of the important missions of the reserve forces is to protect the lives and property of the people from disasters and to support the local community. The disaster management of local governments in the future will require more military support. Therefore, the disaster management should be given high priority to national policy. Furthermore, a disaster management agenda that can lead the international community should be drawn up, and the role and contribution of the RRF to the international community should be sought.
    Keyword:Mobilization, Reserve Force, Nontraditional Security, Disaster, Cooperative Security
  • Purpose: Although the Balkans have historically diverse ethnic groups, there have been ethnic and religious conflicts since modern times due to the failure to form a nation-state and the emergence of interests and socialist systems of neighboring powers. After Tito's death, Kosovo's armed conflict between Serbia and Albania intensified, leading to NATO's involvement, and serious crimes during the war. The purpose of this study is to study the relationship between forces and war crimes that emerged during the war. Method: To examine ethnic problems in the Balkans and the formation of ethnic states, especially ethnic conflicts and war patterns in Kosovo, and to analyze the armed struggle between the Serbian-led Yugoslav government and Albania's KLA. We also look at crimes committed by both groups and why NATO was involved. Results: Western support for the KLA's armed struggle to form an independent state in Kosovo resulted in Albanian ethnic groups taking over Kosovo and developing from autonomous to sovereign states. The war led to the kidnapping, torture, massacre and sexual assault of innocent citizens, but the leaders of the KLA were transformed from terrorists to official authorities in charge of the regime. Conclusion: Ethnic problems have internal problems that cannot be solved by external interference. In addition, if external forces intervene under the pretext of resolving the problem of ethnic conflict, it can be seen that ultimately dominating hegemony within the region is essential. The international community's interest in human rights violations by the state during the war should be raised.
    Keyword:Balkan, KLA, Rambouillet Talks, NATO, Terrorism
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the mediation effect of professional identity in the process of the effect of Army professionals` perceptions of the system on organizational commitment, and to draw policy implications for the training and utilization of effective professionals. Methods: The survey was conducted on Army professionals and the hypothesis was verified using structural equations(AMOS18.0). Results: First, system trust did not have a significant effect on professional identity. Second, system internalization had a positive(+) effect on professional identity. Third, the indirect effect of professional identity was not significant in the relationship between system trust and organizational commitment. Fourth, the indirect effect of professional identity was significant in the relationship between system internalization and organizational commitment. Conclusion: First, it is necessary to consider the organizational level of professional personnel management system that allows professional personnel officers to have a positive perception and agree with its purpose. Second, in the process of system change, the situation and opinions of the army specialist officers who are subject to the system change should be reflected as much as possible, and the detailed consideration of the organizational level that makes them well accept the purpose and purpose of system change is necessary. Third, when the Army professional personnel officers are provided with conditions to work with a high professional identity and implement related policies, their organizational commitment can be increased.
    Keyword:Professional Identity, System Internalization, System Trust, Organizational Commitment, Army Professionals