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  • This study investigated the effects on body composition, physical fitness, and bone mineral density (BMD) of 20 elderly women aged 60 or older residing in G city, K province who participated in the Dahn-taekwondo Qigong program for the elderly for 1 hour per day, 3 times a week for 3 months. This study examined the suitability of incorporating elderly Qigong program into the exercise prescription program for the elderly with decreased physical activity ability. The results showed that the Dahn-taekwondo Qigong program showed a significant decrease only in body fat percentage among the elderly women's body composition. For the fitness factor, all the fitness factors except cardiopulmonary endurance for the normal weight group and agility and dynamic equilibrium measures for the overweight group were significantly improved. Also, it showed a significant increase in the BMD of the normal weight group. Based on the observations mentioned above, participating in Qigong program for the elderly will be suitable as a health promotion program for the elderly by improving BMD and fitness factors even though the body composition does not change so much.
    Keyword:Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Qigong Training, Dahn-Taekwondo, Bone Mineral Density(BMD)
  • Martial art field is composed of trainees, training facilities, and field. In Martial art field, judgments of instructor and safety awareness have considerable amount of influence on the trainees and the players. Therefore, current research would propose a way to enhance safety awareness of the leaders, trainees, institutions and first aid education. First, practical lecture has to be prior to the theory based education. Also, first aid education needs to be changed from general emergency education to education specifically for each martial arts. Moreover, mandatory certificate is required for assistant instructors. When the instructor is absent, making safety management system manual for the trainees would be essential to react the emergency situation. At the same time, ability of reacting against emergency situation and its educations are necessary along with technical instruction for normal situation. Second, evaluation and education of instructors’ emergency certification, overall social awareness, and change of awareness on possible danger of training are needed. In addition, professional knowledge of emergency aid is required for each instructors. Third, management and supervision over safety supplies and facilities should be mandatory and regulated along with furnishing and integration of basic emergency kit. Fourth, improvement on gym insurance policy is needed. Also prevention program for emergency education system and safety related program should be developed.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, First Aid, First Aid Education, Safety, Education
  • This study investigated as to whether Korean people living in modern society are effective in playing a role of bringing the healing of mind and body through Hapkido training which is one of the martial arts that started on the basis of oriental thought while living with social problems. Oriental thought is able to remind Koreans, who are suffering from social problems like modern times, that human beings are no longer separated from the world, are not helpless and worthless, but that they are universal beings possessing eternal time and infinite space within themselves. If we accept a new human perspective through Hapkido training, we will realize that our existence’s value is quite meaningful and would be able to pursue true peace and happiness. It emphasizes the fact that the relationship between body and mind is not dichotomous but rather closely related to each other in order to be fully human in oriental thought, so that the mind and body must be performed at the same time. It is ki that mediates the relationship between mind and body, that is, the body and mind are connected to each other through the medium of ki. Hapkido has a spirit of martial art that seeks to unite humanity and the universe by recognizing the change of the universe as the flow of ki and realizing its principle. Therefore, Korean Hapkido, which sees the flow of ki as the basis of performance, is a martial art based on the fundamental spirit of oriental martial arts. Thus, ki in Korean Hapkido is based on the inner strength of the human being and strengthens through breathing training and thus coincides with the movement. It is not only the basic maintenance tool of life but also the main spirit and sustaining source of Hapkido in order to reinforce the internal strength of the human mind through breathing training and to harmonize the movement of the body. Pursuing in Hapkido is to have spirit and body gain enlightenment through ki. Thus, the training principle and technical system of Hapkido is to realize the body by sustaining ki. Therefore, naturalness is greatly emphasized when one practices Hapkido techniques, and it is a process of naturally communicating the technique and learning the importance of human being without competing with each other and instead, exchange techniques with each other. Accordingly, when practicing Hapkido as a physical and spiritual training, it can be said that the utility is great as a physical and spiritual training method if the technique is focused on ki central to the breathing technique, and if the technique is performed naturally while harmonizing with the opponent.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Hapkido, Utility, Ki(氣), Techniques
  • As a traditional Japanese martial art and a self defense technique, Karate is one that which does not use a weapon but systematically trains hands and feet to run, kick, lunge, block and avoid, among other techniques while promptly identifying moving targets and submitting the counterparts with a legal strike. As this Karate was introduced to Korea, it has formed a new martial arts culture in combination with traditional Korean martial arts. It is very rare that a nation or a culture has a unique culture of its own and instead has flourished and grown by interacting with and under the influence of other nations and cultures. Karate was also developed as a result of a combination of “te”, indigenous to Okinawa, and the martial art of the fist of southern China, and it was spread throughout Japan decisively by Funakoshi Gichin in October 1908, when it was adopted as a formal subject along with Judo and Kendo for Teachers School in Okinawa and Jeongrip Jeil Middle School. Thereafter in 1936, a meet-ing was held in Naha, the capital of Okinawa, to unify the official name of Karate into Karatem(空手). And in May 1956, the Okinawa Karate Federation was formed, and in 1960, the first official grading and dan review was held, and in February 1967, it turned into the All Okinawa Karate Federation. Ever since, Karate has globalized through the magnificent works of Oyama Masters(Choi Young-eui) and was adopted as a formal event for the Tokyo Summer Olympic Games in 2020. During the 36-year Japanese colonial period, Koreans naturally came to learn about the Japanese culture, and Korean students who learned Karate during their study in Japan returned and taught Karate they learned before and after liberation, which gave rises to the inflow of Japanese Karate into Korea. Among the representative figures was Lee Won-guk, who founded the ‘Cheongdokwan’ and went to Japan's Waseda Middle and High School to studied Karate from Funakoshi Gichin by entering ‘Shotokan’, the root of Karate while he attended faculty of law at Chou University. And while studying in Japan, Roh Byeong-jik who founded ‘Songmukwan’ also learned Karate at ‘Shotokan’ of Funakoshi Gichin, the founder of the modern Karate, and Jeon Sang-seob also learned Karate during his study in Japan, founded ‘Chosun Yeonmukwan’ and taught Karate. Yoon Byeong-in, who taught Karate at the YMCA Fungfu Department located in Jongno, Seoul, also learned Karate during his study in Japan and was promoted to the 5th dan. The Japanese Karate, which was introduced into Korea, formed Karate with five major factions including Moodeokkwan, and taught Karate. However, in September 1954, the title of Taekwondo was conceived by Choi Hong-hee, and in 1965, Choi Hong-hee became the chairman of the Korean Taesoodo Association and renamed it to the Korean Taekwondo Association and used ‘Taekwondo’ as its official name. In November 1972, the central studio ‘Kukkiwon’ launched and integrated. Given this background, this study will help to understand the historical flow of the culture of Korean and Japanese martial arts and also help understand the foundation for the formation of martial arts through the analysis of Japanese Karate's flow into Korea.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Karate, History, Taekwondo, Kukkiwon