Analysis and Suggestions of KOREAN Junior High School MARTIAL ARTS Curriculum
In terms of the changes in the physical education curriculum, it had not had systematic curriculum until it established the 1st curriculum under the US armed forces. The 1st curriculum was enacted on August 1, 1955, and the 2nd curriculum in 1963, the 3rd curriculum in 1973, the 4th curriculum in 1981, the 5th curriculum in 1987, the 6th curriculum in 1992, and the 7th curriculum was revised in 1997 and operated until 2007. After this, while the 7th curriculum has been maintained in the 2007 revision curriculum, in which junior high schools changed their differentiated curriculum into differentiated instruction, also the divisions such as "step by step type" or "intense and supplementary type" were abolished. Since the intensive classes have been strengthened, classes have become available for each semester. However, the hours of alternative course were reduced by the five-day school week.
The martial arts education of Korean junior high schools started to appear from the 3rd physical education curriculum, operated as physical arts from the first grade to the third grade of junior high school. The contents of physical education curriculum were different for boys and girls, for example, soccer and physical matches were only for boys, dance was for girls only, and gymnastics was clearly distinguished for boys' and girls'.
The junior high school martial arts education is a challenging activity among five contents areas(health activities, challenging activities, competitive activities, expression activities, leisure activities) in the 2007 revised physical education and curriculum, and is an activity to challenge the physical skill of others who are moving, which includes sports like ssireum, taekwondo, and kendo. However, due to the nature of martial arts education, it is difficult to achieve the learning goals because of the lack of instructors and martial arts classes based on the educational curriculum.
The martial arts occupy an important area as not only a mental education for human formation but also fitness training for a physical education. In other words, martial arts are appreciated by training the body to improve physical fitness and health, and as a self-defense to protect oneself. Therefore, it is necessary to con-struct systematically in order to achieve the goal of martial arts education of Korean junior high school as follows.
1) The martial arts education in the school should be systematically organized by the annual plan.
2) It is necessary to expand the professional manpower who are in charge of martial arts education at school.
3) Organize the martial arts education systematically according to the level of the students and conduct them in a step-by-step manner so as to acquire the ability to protect oneself from danger.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the martial arts curriculum of Korean junior high schools and to under-stand the martial arts spirit, which will help the martial arts operate systematically in the physical education curriculum.
This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products.
A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20.
The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products.
On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively.
Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
Comparison of Physical Strength Characteristics According to Performance Level of University TAEKWONDO DEMONSTRATION MajorsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on physical fitness training to improve the performance of Taekwondo demonstration majors by identifying the characteristics of physical fitness factors according to the performance level of university Taekwondo demonstration members. Method: The subjects of this study are Taekwondo demonstration members enrolled in K University located in D city. The differences in body structure, physical fitness factors, isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint, and anaerobic exercise capacity were compared and analyzed for 3 male students in the national demonstration group and 3 male students in the general demonstration group. Results: As a result of measurement of body structure, physical fitness factors, isokinetic muscle function, and anaerobic exercise capacity of the national demonstration team and general students, there was no statistically significant difference between groups. However, through the results of this study, it was confirmed that the ratio of flexor and extensor muscles needs to be improved to an ideal ratio of 55% to 65% as suggested in previous studies to prevent damage to the lower extremities of general students. In addition, the standing long jump and sargent jump, side step, eyes closed and one leg standing, and knee joint isokinetic muscle power showed a higher tendency in the national demonstration group compared to the general students. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the measurement results of anaerobic exercise capacity. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is thought that it will be difficult to present the characteristics of the physical fitness factors according to the performance level of Taekwondo demonstration majors. However, considering the results of many previous studies and this study, it is thought that efforts to improve agility, power, and balance ability are needed to improve the performance of Taekwondo demonstration majors. It is judged that improvement of the flexion muscle/extension muscle ratio of the lower extremities is necessary to prevent additional injuries.Keyword:Taekwondo Demonstration, Performance, Physical Fitness Factors, Isokinetic Muscle Function, Anaerobic Exercise Capacity
A Study on the Verification of Competency Management Factors of College TAEKWONDO Athletes and Strategies for Improving PerformancePurpose: The purpose of this study is, as a previous study to help prepare specific goals and plans for the university students of Taekwondo major, is to identify and analyze the major areas of interest and their extent of interest for the underclassmen university students in Taekwondo major. Method: To examine and understand the area of interest and the extent of interest of the university students of Taekwondo major, this study produced and conducted an open-ended survey questionnaire regarding religion, hobbies, Taekwondo major’s area of interest, and future hopes. As for the data collected based on the questionnaires, the SPSS 26.0 program was used. The frequency analysis was performed to analyze the general characteristics of the study participants and the extent of interest of their area of interest, and the data collected via the open-ended questionnaire were subjected to the inductive content analysis. Results: First, as a result of the inductive content analysis performed of the extent of interest for the hobby activities of the university students of Taekwondo major, the hobby activities were structured into 18 sub-areas, and the 18 sub-areas were further classified into the 5 general areas of physical activity(206), media activity(54), social group activity(37), literary activity(26), and others(6), respectively. In the general area, physical activity(62.61%) turned out to have the largest rate, followed by media activity(16.41%), social group activity(11.25%), and liter-ary activity(7.9%), in terms of the extent of interest hobbies, respectively. Second, the first year and second year university students of Taekwondo major who analyzed the Taekwondo major’s area of interest for the extent of interest of the university students of Taekwondo major turned out to have demonstration being the largest with 42 people(45.3%) among the 3 areas of Taekwondo of Poomsae, Sparring, and Demonstration, with 35 people(36.8%) for Poomsae, and 17 people(17.9%) for Sparring. Conclusion: If the areas of interests of the underclassmen university students identified based on the results of this study were utilized as the basic data, it will be possible for the university students to present specific goals for their future career paths and occupations after graduation through their upperclassmen years.Keyword:University, Taekwondo, Major, Area of Interest, Extent of Interest
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze pparun bal dollyuchagi(fast spin kick) motion of Taekwondo players, divided as outstanding ones and unskilled ones, to provide kinematic information on Taekwondo kicks and pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and analyze differences in kicks between comparative groups. Method: The subjects of this study are Taekwondo players in their 20s who are attending the Taekwondo department at K University, five outstanding ones who have won prizes at domestic competitions and five unskilled ones who have not won competitions. Prior to the experiment, the subjects were asked for consent and explained how to proceed with the experiment. Kinematic data were collected using eight digital cameras. Statistical processing in this study was conducted using SPSS 22.0 software, and statistical analysis values were calculated as mean(M) and standard deviation(SD). An independent sample t-test was conducted to analyze the differences between groups, and the statistical significance probability was set to p<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the total execution time during the comparative analysis between the skilled and unskilled players of Jasebaqeo Pparunbal Dollyuchagi, and significant differences were found in the left and right variables of body center. Also, significant differences were found for each event in the hip, knee, and ankle joints of the lower extremities. Conclusion: According to the experiment, it is necessary to select an efficient hitting distance to improve the com- pleteness of the pparun bal dollyuchagi motion, and to hit the target, the width of the center of mass displace- ment on the left and right sides must be small and balanced without shaking. The knee joint and ankle joint should be quickly extended when striking a target, then vertically moved quickly to perform a perfect motion. This study is considered significant in that it provided fundamental data necessary for the efficient performance of kicks.Keyword:Kinematic, Pparun Ball Dollyuchagi, Center of Mass, Time Required, Angle
Exploring the Possibilities of Be-Coming Sports Events of Traditional MARTIAL ARTS of Chinese Ethnic MinoritiesPurpose: This study aims to explore the possibility as a sports event by analyzing the competition environment of traditional martial arts sports competitions of ethnic minorities in Gansu Province, China. Method: Based on literature research, competition events, performance, and participation status, we are going to explore the development and succession of traditional martial arts of Chinese ethnic minorities and the possibility of becoming competition sports in Gansu Province. Results: First, the development stages of the traditional martial arts competitions were distinguished by considering prior studies centered on the traditional martial arts sports competitions of Chinese ethnic minorities in Gansu province. Second, through the competition status of the traditional martial arts sports competition, the competition environment was analyzed and the cause of the events that entered the national martial arts competition was analyzed. Third, it is reported that it can be developed with regional festivals by expanding the Gansu martial arts sports festivals and the regional festivals. Lastly, through the major educational channels of schools, excellent national traditional martial arts programs will be transferred and developed to create synergies between traditional martial arts programs and school physical education, as well as well as promote and develop Chinese traditional martial arts culture. Conclusion: In order to explore the possibility of traditional Chinese martial arts sports competitions as national sports and further becoming school sports and sports events, educational and competitive support as a top priority should be based on Chinese physical education subjects. Various studies should be conducted to explore the possibility of Chinese physical education intangible cultural heritage as a global sport through the discovery, organization, distribution and promotion.Keyword:Chinese Ethnic, Traditional Martial Arts, Sports Competitions, Analysis on Competition Environment, Possibility
The Effect of the Youth's Generativity Following Their Participation in MARTIAL ARTS Training on Social Adaptation and Social HappinessPurpose: For youth, in such a time where physical activities and self-concept development are vigorous, and at the same time, where physical activities are suppressed due to the stress of entrance exam related academic preparations, the negative impact of self-concept is an obstacle to their holistic development, and hence, it is important for them to develop a positive self-concept, which requires an effective method. Hence, in order to spread the participation in sports activities for leading a healthy and sound life through the self-realization of youth and correct physical self-concept, by examining the effects of youth generativity through participation in the martial arts training on social adaptation and social happiness, it would be meaningful in helping to develop the regular education programs for youth. Method: In this study, by using the youth participating in martial arts training as the population as of 2021, the sampling method was used to survey 300 people by using the convenience sampling method, and the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method, and among the recovered survey questionnaires, the questionnaire was used as a valid sample except for the data in which the response contents were insincere or some of the contents were omitted. The data processing of this study was frequency analysis, Cronbach's α coefficient calculation, factor analysis, and correlation analysis by using the SPSS 25.0 Program, a statistical package program. The multiple regression was used. Results: As a result of the factor analysis performed on generativity, social adaptation, and social happiness, it was consisted of 2 factors for generativity, 4 factors for social adaptation, and 4 factors for social happiness, and all factors turned out to be .05 or higher, respectively. As a result of the reliability validation performed, the Cronbach's α coefficient turned out to be between .952 and .673, and as a result of the correlation analysis performed, it turned out that there was a positive(+) relationship between all of the factors. It turned out that generativity influences social adaptation and social happiness. Conclusion: To achieve the purpose of the study, a conclusion was reached that generativity influences social adaptation and social happiness through the results of the questionnaire. It is necessary to maintain and improve optimism through the mental and physical health by continuously participating in physical activities including the martial arts training for youth, and there is also a need for an environment where the youth may freely participate in sports activities without any restrictions and the method or policy supported by policy. Furthermore, since the positive image of athletes by sport, including Taekwondo, is continuously used as a communication tool in the modern society, it ought to be used to promote and help improve the image of sports through advertisements for many sports athletes.Keyword:Martial Arts Training, Youth, Generativity, Social Adaptation, Social Happiness
Relationship Between TAEKWONDO Demonstrators' Athletic Commitment and the Psychological Happiness and Athletic SustainabilityPurpose: Prior studies related to athletic commitment have been conducted on various sports players, but studies on Taekwondo demonstrators are insufficient. Thus, it is deemed that measures should be prepared to expand the qualitative area of Taekwondo demonstration by exploring the appropriate level of athletic commitment. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of Taekwondo demonstration team members' athletic commitment on psychological happiness and athletic sustainability and provide basic data for psychological research related to Taekwondo demonstration. Method: The data collection of this study was conducted for a total of seven days from 07/05/2021 to 07/11/2021. The research team fully explained the purpose and intent of the study to the leaders of college Taekwondo demonstration teams, sought their cooperation, and visited the training place or classroom to conduct the survey. The research team explained the purpose of the study and required the subjects to participate in the survey. Results: A correlation analysis was conducted to find out the correlation among factors such as athletic commitment, psychological happiness, and athletic sustainability of members of college Taekwondo demonstration teams. The Pearson correlation coefficient shows that the lowest correlation was found between cognitive commitment and reinforcement(r=.439, p<.01) and the highest correlation emerged between behavioral commitment and tendency(r=.708, p<.01). Conclusion: First, the Taekwondo demonstration team's athletic commitment did not affect their psychological happiness. Second, multiple regression analyses were conducted on the effects of athletic commitment on the tendency of Taekwondo demonstrators, and the results showed that cognitive commitment and behavioral commitment had a positive impact on tendency on a statistically significant level. In addition, multiple regression analyses were conducted on the effects of reinforcement, and the results showed that cognitive commitment and behavioral commitment had a positive effect on reinforcement at a statistically significant level. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses of the effects on possibility have shown that cognitive commitment, behavioral commitment have statistically significant levels and positive effects on athletic sustainability. Third, the psychological happiness of the Taekwondo demonstration team did not affect athletic sustainability.Keyword:Relationship, Taekwondo, Athletic Commitment, Psychological Happiness, Athletic Sustainability
A Survey of Injuries and a Comparative Study of Characteristics for Each Detailed Sport of TAEKWONDOPurpose: This study was conducted to examine the status of injuries by each detailed sport of Taekwondo and provide the basic data for developing an injuries prevention program appropriate for the characteristics of each sport. Method: A total of 110 college and university Taekwondo athletes were targeted, including 35 for competition, 33 for poomsae, and 42 for demonstration, respectively, and the status of injuries and treatment methods were surveyed and analyzed. The results are as follows. Results: First, as for the injuries related experiences, 82.4% of those for competition, 69.7% of those for poomsae, and 78% of those for demonstration turned out to have had relevant experiences, and as for the surgery related experiences by each sport, those for competition were 44.1%, those for poomsae were 15.2%, and those for demonstration were 21.4%, respectively. Second, as a result of analyzing the their recovery period, those for sparing were 28.6% and those for demonstration were 42.9% responding with less than 4 weeks at the most. Meanwhile, those for poomsae demonstrated the highest rate of 36.4% for over 6 months. Third, as a result of analyzing the situation of injuries, those for competition were 80%, those for poomsae were 78.8%, and those for demonstration were 63.4%, responding that they have suffered most injuries during this sport. Fourth, as a result of analyzing the causes of injuries, 24% of those for competition responded with collision or fall the most. 21.7% of those for poomsae and 25% of those for demonstration responded fatigue and overwork as the causes of injuries the most. Fifth, as a result of analyzing the timing of injuries, 36.8% of those for competition, 42.6% of those for poomsae, and 38.4% of those for demonstration responded that they have suffered the most injuries during the winter. Sixth, as a result of analyzing the types of injuries, sprains and fractures accounted for the most with 17.7%, respectively, while 18.9% of those for poomsae and 25.2% of those for for demonstration responded the most with sprain. Seventh, as a result of analyzing the parts of injuries, 28.8% of those for competition, 34.5% of those for poomsae, and 34.5% of those for demonstration responded the most with lower body injuries. Lastly, as a result of analyzing the method of handling injuries, 24.7% of those for competition, 19.6% of those for poomsae, and 19.9% of those for demonstration responded the most with treatment after visiting an oriental medicine clinic. Conclusion: Gathering which, given the high frequency of sports injuries for the athletes, conditioning is needed, and it is also determined that the measures for maintaining body temperature and preventing injuries are required during the winter exercises. Furthermore, given the characteristics of Taekwondo, the frequency of use of the lower body is quite high, and as it is evident that the lower body injuries are prevalent, and since there are many sprains and fractures, in line with the causes and types of such injuries, systematic training methods for improving the athletes' performance and preventing injuries, and such preventive methods as taping, braces, and warm-up exercises would likely be required.Keyword:Taekwondo, Demonstration, Poomsae, Competition, Injury
Analysis of the Kinetic Difference of DOLGAECHAGI Between Taekwondo Kyorugi Players and DemonstratorsPurpose: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the appropriate technique performance by analyzing and presenting the differences in and among the major kinematic factors of Taekwondo’s Dolgaechagi movements between Taekwondo Kyorugi planers and the members of the demonstration team. Method: As for the subjects of this study, from among the Taekwondo players attending the Taekwondo Department of K University, 5 Kyorugi players and 5 demonstrators, among the Kyorugi players, who have entered the national team selection process and the demonstration team of the selection process. Prior to entering the experiment, a consent was secured from each subject, while the experiment implementation procedures were explained, and the kinetic data were collected by using 8 high speed digital cameras. Results: As for the time required for the situation(P2), the time required for the demonstration team was greater than that of the Kyorugi players, and there was a statistically significant difference(p<.05). As for the center of mass up and down(Z) movement displacement, in E3, the demonstrators turned out to be higher than the Kyorugi players, and there was a statistically significant difference(p<.05). In E4, the demonstrators turned out to be higher than the Kyorugi players, and there was a statistically significant difference(p<.05). The difference of the hip joint’s angle turned out to be higher in E4 for the Kyorugi players than the demonstrators(p<.05), and there was a statistically significant difference(p<.05). Conclusion: As a result of the experiment, to improve the level of completion of the Dolgaechagi kick, the demonstrator needs to jump high from and above the ground and also have the sports ability in the jumping state for the accurate movement, and at the time of executing the Dolgaechagi kick, in using the force for the ankle and knee joints, he or she turned out to execute the Dolgaechagi movement after bending the hip joint to the maximum. Kyorugi players need low and prompt sports ability since they strike the target by relying on fast rotations from the groun, and at the time of executing the Dolgaechagi kick, rather than using the force of the ankle and knee joints, they turned out to execute the Dolgaechagi movement without a maximum bend for the hip joint’s angle as they strike the target by relying on fast rotations.In order to efficiently perform kicks based on such results, the Kyorugi players need a training by using fast rotations on the ground, and the demonstrators need strength and flexibility trainings in making jumps high on the ground.Keyword:Taekwondo, Dolgaechagi, Kinetic, TaekwondoKyorugi Players, Taekwondo Demonstration
A Study on the Verification of Competency Management Factors of College TAEKWONDO Athletes and Strategies for Improving PerformancePurpose: This study sought to conceptualize the components of the evaluation management for excellent college Taekwondo athletes and validate each component in detail. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to, third, propose a strategy through the analysis of the importance of key management factors structuring the definition of the components. Method: To achieve the purpose of the study, literature review, in-depth interviews, the Delphi analysis, and the AHP analysis were sequentially carried out. Results: First, customized training and match strategies ought to be structured for each individual athlete. Furthermore, it is necessary to continuously share these with coaches, athletes, and parents, and create a flexible systematic training program which may be adjusted at any time according to the match performance. Second, it is necessary to introduce an active consulting program related to family life, school and team life, and interpersonal relationship, and also systematically introduce a program which enables the exchange of opinions by and between leaders, counselors, parents, and athletes. Third, after retiring as a college student, the basic academic and curriculum learning management, on top of the Taekwondo match skills, one ought to be able to operate a program which may be consulted by and between the advising professor and the Taekwondo coach so that one can organize life independently. Fourth, by classifying excellent athletes or athletes of high potential value, one needs to connect with the college headquarters to provide a sponsorship program to connect sponsors and sponsor organizations according to match skills and recent performance results, and also consider the career path for Taekwondo activities which can sustain match skills and athlete life as a matter of formal institutionalization. Conclusion: The athlete competency management evaluation scale developed with a focus on the college Taekwondo athletes may be utilized as the basic data for the college athletes to reach the national level of matching skills and also discover promising middle and high school students. Furthermore, academic and practical effects may be expected in that they will provide useful information for the follow-up researchers in the study of the field of Taekwondo match.Keyword:ompetency Management Factors, College, Taekwondo Athletes, Strategies for Improving, Performance
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data that will help expand the base of Judo by analyzing the social process that adolescents who are entering puberty during the period of becoming an adult and are currently attending middle school to train their body by practicing judo. Method: The subject of this study was to extract samples from Judo trainers and non-trainers at middle schools and various schools located across the country using cluster random sampling. Only valid samples were coded in accordance with the coding guidelines, except for responses that were deemed unreliable after the response was retrieved from the completed data. After individually inputting the encoded data into the computer, it was computerized according to the purpose of analysis using the statistical program SPSS Window 20.0 Version. Results: As a result of the difference in Judo Training and sociality of middle school students according to demographic characteristics, the second year was higher than the third year in cooperation according to gender, and the lower rank was higher in cooperation. As a result of the correlation between Judo Training Participation and social development, training period showed a positive correlation with training frequency, and training frequency showed a negative correlation with compliance. As a result of the Participation in training on social development, compliance was found to have a negative effect on intensity, and autonomy was found to have a positive effect on duration. Conclusion: As a result of a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Judo Training in middle school students on sociality, no significant difference was found in the family relationship and the results of comparing the personality characteristics and social differences between trainees and non-trainees according to demographic characteristics. However, in terms of gender, training groups showed significant differences in activity and dominance, unlike non-training groups. Based on these results, it is necessary to develop various programs that can be implemented in Judo gymnasiums for the development of social skills necessary for the growth period.Keyword:Middle School Students, Martial Art, Judo Training, Participation, Sociality Development