The Impact of the SPORTS Participation Motivation of KOREA College Students on Social Support and Social Adaptation
The self-administration method was used to prepare the survey questionnaire, and the questionnaire survey was conducted by the researcher visiting the research subjects and explaining the purpose of the research to the participants of the collegiate sports activities. The research subjects responded to the survey on the spot, and the researcher retrieved their responses accordingly. As such, a total of 650 copies were distributed, of which the responses whose details were incomplete or absent were excluded from the analysis. In addition, the statistical method was used to undergo the process to remove the extreme values, and 42 samples were excluded, followed by the selection of 608 people as the final valid samples for the final analysis.
The collected data then have undergone frequency analysis, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS version 21.0 program, and the significance level was examined at the p <.05 level to derive the following conclusions.
First, as a result of performing the regression analysis of the impact of the participation motivation of the college students' participation in sports on social support, the motivation subfactors such as health, socialization and recreation seem to have a positive impact on the emotional support.
Second, the regression analysis of the participation motivation of the college students' participation in sports showed that health and social factors, which are subfactors of the participation motivation, have a positive impact on adaptation, which is a subfactor of the life adaptation.
Third, as a result of analyzing the impact of social support of the college students on the life adaptation, emotional support and information support factors, which are social support facts, have a positive impact on the adaptation factor, which is a subfactor of the life adaptation.
The college students' participation in sport is based on physical activity, and they feel emotional bond and form friendly relationship, so that through a good relationship with college students, they could have a sense of community and adapt to their school life. Therefore, the sports participation activities help the college students to grow their health, socialization, and pleasure, among others, thereby raising their ability to adapt to social life as a factor, and the efforts to expand their chances to participate in sports, develop sports programs, and secure facilities will be needed.
This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products.
A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20.
The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products.
On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively.
Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
This study was to investigate the effects of Naegong-Chesool exercise on physical fitness and bal-ance abilities in male elderly. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group (n=20) and Control group(n=20). The Naegong-Chesool exercise program for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significantly increased in muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility and agility. Second, there were significantly increased in UP, Down, Left, Right Balance abilities. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the Naegong-Chesool exercise could improve the physical fitness and balance ability of male elderly.Keyword:Sport, Naegong-Chesool, Physical Fitness, Balance Abilities, Male Elderly
Trend in and Strategic Implementation Plan for the International Development COOPERATION through SPORTSIn the present day, the significance of sports has been emphasized as an effective mediator for the international development cooperation such as by being used for economic and social development of developing countries. The United Nations has designated 2005 as a year for sports and athletics and has also adopted a resolution such that sports are an important means of promoting health, education, development and peace, while stress-ing such a positive role for economic development and social development. In this vein, advanced contributors such as Australia and Canada are participating in the international development cooperation utilizing sports, while international sports organizations including the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as well as sports organizations such as organizations for each event are participating in international development and carrying out activities through sports. As such, even as the significance of sports is stressed for the international development, related studies are conducted such as the international development and cooperation through sports and sports ODA, yet the studies conducted with sports as an effective tool of the international development cooperation intended for strategic plan and system development have been minimal. Accordingly, in this study, the concept and significance of international development cooperation through sports are examined, and recent trends and cases of international development cooperation through sports are analyzed to present strategic alternatives for related projects. Strategic implementation plans for international development cooperation through sports include, first, the establishment of global governance among the related organizations, second, the participation of companies to secure stable financial resources, and, third, the utilization of sports stars to help publicize related programs, respectively.Keyword:Sports, Sports International Development, Sports ODA, International Development Cooperation through Sports, Development through Sport
The ancient Olympic games, which were held every four years as now for a millenium from 776 BC until 395 AD, were a forum of competition for the mankind to mutually compete and enjoy in a variety of ways. Such Olympic games are a unique connection between the ancient and the modern times. The modern Olympic games were held for the first time in Athens, Greece, in 1896 and the 32nd Tokyo Olympic Games will be held in 2020. After Japan experienced the great earthquake in 1923 and lost the second World War, Tokyo was the first to attract the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964 in Asia, where 19 games were held, with 94 countries and 6,318 athletes participated, thereby becoming an opportunity to inform the world about the high speed growth and strength of the post war Japan. In particular, Japan, which has grown into an economic powerhouse and which is standing in the center of the international political arena, has endeavored to make the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as the ones attracting greater attention from the world than any other host country in history. Among such endeavors, Japan intended to raise its stature as the host country of the larger and successful games by adding games. Of the games, Karate was a traditional Japanese martial art, which was first introduced from Okinawa to the main islands of Japan in 1917. Thereafter, in 1922, as the Ministry of Education hosted an ancient martial art exhibition in which Karate participated, and as Keio University and Waseda University founded Karate departments, Karate developed into a martial art culture of Japan. Thereafter, Karate has become globalized by the spectacular performance and leadership of Oyama Masters, in which process the Japanese society escaped from the ruins of the war and achieved prosperity and success drawing attention from the world. Furthermore, the spirit of martial art through Karate has brought the Japanese people together, and Karate became the spirit of the Japanese people. For these reasons, Japan has wanted Karate to become an official game for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. While 26 games were held at the 30th London Olympic Games in 2012 and 28 official games were held at the 31st Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games in 2016, including golf and rugby, but Japan has successfully enabled adopting Karate as an official Olympic game, and by including surfing, skateboarding, sports climbing, baseball and soft-ball, the number of official games grew to 33 in total. The modern Olympic games are also used to strengthen national interests, international status, and pride of the nation rather than promoting the understanding of international peace and harmony of mankind. In particular, Karate had faced difficulties in being adopted as a formal game since it was a similar game to Taekwondo of Korea, but since Japan was able to decide on which games to add through the “Olympic Agenda 2020,” the Tokyo Olympic Games Organizing Committee nominated additional candidates of official games for pentathlon to the IOC in September 2013 and acquired approval of the executive committee for the finalization at the general assembly. Accordingly, this study will examine the process of changes for the Olympic games and what process the Japanese Karate underwent to be adopted for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games as an official game. In particular, it will be helpful to understand what impact it will have on the martial art sport after the Tokyo Olympic Games and the flow of sports diplomacy as Karate is adopted as an official Olympic game representing the Japanese martial arts.Keyword:Olympic Games, Karate, History, Sports Games, Taekwondo
Gongjin-Dan is a traditional oriental medicine herbal drug that has been used tonics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the hot water extract of Gongjin-Dan mixed garlic(GGD) against scopolamine-induced memory impairment and its mechanism of action. We used the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests to assess anti-amnesic activities in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mouse model. In this model, GGD(12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. We also explored its mechanism of action by conducting an antioxidant activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free and acetylcholineserase(AChE) activity assay us-ing the mouse whole brain. GGD increased the scavenging activities of free radical DPPH and ABTS, inhibited AChE activity in the brain. Taken together, our findings suggest that GGD exerts an anti-amnesic effect through the free radical scavenging, AChE inhibition, ameliorate of scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The effect of GGD may be useful for treatment of memory impairment in Alzheimer’s and its related diseases.Keyword:Sport, Garlic Gongjin-Dan, Scopolamine, Memory Impairment, Alzheimer’s Diseases
This research aims to find out the effects of the senior program participation based on the training method of Dahn-taekwondo that is inherited with the tradition of the original Korean qigong. The targets of this research are 20 women seniors of older than 60. By the classification of the body mass index into the normal and over-weight groups, the senior qigong program was carried out for 1 hour a day 3 times a week for 12 weeks. As a result, there was no change in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the neutral fat of a normal person among the blood lipid factors. The total cholesterol decreased significantly for both groups, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly for the overweight group. Therefore, it is proved that the comparably easier senior qigong program participation causes the positive effects on the blood pressure and blood lipid factors, and it can be used as a seniors’ health promotion program.Keyword:Dahn-Taekwondo, Qigong Training, Blood Pressure, Blood Lipid Factors, Body Mass Index(BMI)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of mentoring of college golf major instructors on empowerment factor and sports confidence and provide useful data for them to set up clear target goals and improve their performance. In order to achieve this goal, this study selected golf college students in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Daegu, and Gyeongbuk between March and May, 2018 for three months by using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The researcher visited each university and requested explanation and cooperation in the questionnaire. 265 copies of the collected questionnaires were used as the data of this study. For data analysis, the SPSS 22.0 program was used in this study and the hypothesis was verified by frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. As a result of analyzing the effects of mentoring on an empowerment factor, the value of explaining power was .237. The effect of independence variables was positively influenced by career factors(β=.163), psychosocial factors(β=.344), and role model factors(β=.226) on empowerment. Second, the analysis of the effect of mentoring on the factors of sports confidence showed 𝑅2, the value of coefficient of determination was found to be .198. The effect of independence variables was positively related to the sport confidence(β=.157), psychosocial factor(β=.344) and role model factor(β=.243).Keyword:Golf, College Golf Majors, Mentoring, Empowerment, Sport Confidence
The aims of this research are: to identify the ethical issues confronting Korean sport organizations, to find factors influencing the decision making to deal with the ethical issues, and, finally, to suggest development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations. In particular, the research addresses the following questions: what kind of ethical issues confronting Korean sport organizations? What are the factors influencing decision making to deal with the ethical issues? What are the development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants working for Korean sport organizations(N=8). Results revealed that Korean sport organizations have been faced with various ethical issues, consist-ing of two main themes: athlete and coach, and organization. While former was related to management and supervision of athlete and coaches, and latter was pertaining to organization’s internal issues. Regarding the factors influencing decision making to deal with the ethical issues, organization’s regulations and obeying boss were identified. In additions, as the tool of ethics management and organizational policy, ethics training pro-grammes and the code of ethics were not applicable and not practical. Finally, improvement of administrative system and eradication of factionalism were suggested for the development plans for managerial ethics in Korean sport organizations.Keyword:Sport, Sport Organizations, Ethical Issues in Sport, Managerial Ethics, Ethical Tools
Exploration of Parents’ Perception towards Discontinuation of the Participants in Adapted PHYSICAL Education Class in KOREAThe purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of discontinuation of the participants in the physical education class by using the case study method which is one of the qualitative research methods. As for the participants of the research, 3 people who discontinued among the participants of the physical education class for children with physical challenges at AAA University were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted, and based on the collected data, the following results were obtained through the data analysis. First, the participants participated in the program without an accurate understanding of the program, and after dissatisfaction with various factors of the environment, they were able to find out the process leading to the discontinuation. Second, the participants were found to be restricted in continuous participation due to various factors of the physical education programs other than the program corresponding to this research case. Third, participants recognized the value of participating in physical activity and were found to be desiring a program with limitations to continuous participation complemented. Despite the quantitative expansion of the program, it was still difficult to find a program that meets their conditions and needs. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve not only the development and dissemination of diverse and systematic programs that can accommodate their diverse characteristics, but also the environment influencing program participation. Furthermore, specialist physical education experts should also pay attention not only to the participants but also to the voice of the people who discontinued and try to achieve better programs.Keyword:Adapted Physical Education, Disabilities, Parent’s Perception, Drop-Out, Discontinuation
The Comparative Analysis on Balance Ability of Throwers between Excellent ATHLETES and Non Excellent ATHLETESThis study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing of throwers between excellent athletes and non excellent athletes by investigating the influence on balance ability. Forty voluntary throwers (20 Excellent Athletes, 20 Non Excellent Athletes) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected in 2017 Gim-Cheon athletic championship, and their balance abilities were measured. As for the static balance ability, excel-lent throwers group was higher than non excellent throwers group in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) static balance ability of body balance variables. Especially, there is a significant difference in Up(U) and Left(L) static balance ability of the body balance variables statistically. As for the dynamic balance ability, excellent throwers group was higher than non excellent throwers group in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) dynamic balance ability of exercise balance variables. Especially, there is a significant difference in Up(U), Right(R), Down(D), and Left(L) dynamic balance ability of the exercise balance variables statistically. The study results indicate that body balance and exercise balance of thrower effected the athletic ability.Keyword:Body Balance Ability, Exercise Balance Ability, Throwers, Excellent Athletes, Non Excellent Athletes
The objective of this study was to explore the effect of SMO16, a Korean poly herbal medicine on bone mass in ovariectomized ( r at s . The loss of bone mass is known to be associated with hormone deficiency in OVX rat s In the present study, w e successfully produced the osteoporosis animal model by dissecting the ovary . To determine t he protective effect of SMO16 in OVX rat , SMO16 was administered at a dose of 2.25 g/kg in saline solution for 8 weeks after OVX . Furthermore, we evaluated the direct effect of SMO16 by using a soft X ray system and Masson’s trichrome staining, phloxine tartrazine staining and immunohistochemistry in vivo . SMO16 significantly regulated the expression of proteoglycan and osteopontin . These data suggest that SMO16 exerts a protective effect against osteoporosis via the activation of proteoglycan and osteopontin that are closely associated with bone balance . Moreover, these findings suggest that SMO16 can act as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosisKeyword:Ovariectomized Rat, Osteoporosis, Osteopontin, Osteoblast, Korean Medicine