All Articles

A Korean Poly-Herbal Medicine, SMO16, Regulates the RANKL/OPG Bone Remodeling in OVX Rat Model

Vol.5 (No.1) 2020
2020-06-30 10:08


Bone mass is regulated by bone resorption(osteoclast) and bone formation(osteoblast), and an imbal-ance between both processes results in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone density and regulation of bone remodeling is crucial for the treatment of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated whether SMO16, a Korean polyherbal medicine containing 5 herbal components, could regulate bone remodeling in an ovariectomized(OVX) rat model. To test the effect of SMO16 in the OVX model, the rats were divided into 3 groups: a control group, OVX group, and OVX + SMO16(2.25 g/kg) for 8 weeks(ST group). The expression of osteocalcin(OPC), receptor activator of nuclear fac-tor kappa-B ligand(RANKL), and osteoprotegerin(OPG) were measured in the femur using specific antibodies. The bone mass was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the OVX group, protein expression of OPC was decreased; however, in the ST group, OPC expression was significantly increased when compared with the OVX group. SMO16 significantly reduces RANKL-positive cells in the OVX rat femur. Additionally, SMO16 increased OPG expression levels. Importantly, SMO16 significantly increased bone density. These data suggest that SMO16 increases bone remodeling by regulating OPC, RANKL, and OPG signaling. SMO16 could be a potential alternative treatment for osteoporosis.

Keyword:Osteoporosis, Osteocalcin, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, Korea Herbal Medicine
  • Purpose: The core purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate the performance of Asian countries participating in the 2018 FIFA World Cup using social network analysis. Method: The subject of study included 5 Asian countries participated in the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia, using pass data for each position based on official data provided by FIFA. The processed data are made into symmetric matrices and the research perform a centrality analysis using Ucinet6, a social network program. Results: The results of the study are as follows. First, when the pass success rate was more than 80%, the ball possession rate was more than 50%, and the actual ball possession time was also confirmed to have 30 minutes. Second, the centrality analysis confirmed that players with high degree centrality also have a high closeness centrality, which can be information that can objectively evaluate major attack directions and key players. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as an objective indicator to identify key players and evaluate their performance through passes by players in team sports events. However, due to the nature of the World Cup games, it is difficult to secure a lot of match data by country, and it is a pity that players who have not participated in the games due to injury cannot be evaluated. Based on the results shown in this research, we hope that it will be used as a new evaluation method to identify key players and objectively analyze each country's game patterns in order to advance to the 2022 Qatar World Cup finals, and it can be used as an analysis method that can objectively evaluate not only soccer games but also other team sports games through social network analysis.
    Keyword:Social Networking, Soccer, Pass, Degree Centrality, Network
  • Purpose: For a study related the utilization of various techniques for Judo athletes of middle schools, high schools, and colleges and universities in their process of growth, this study seeks to explore changes in the utilization of Judo techniques according to the winning careers of the Judo athletes of middle schools, high schools, and colleges and universities and their experience of being selected to represent their schools and organizations. Method: To achieve the purpose of this study, the frequency analysis was performed to examine and understand the general characteristics of the research subjects, and the Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to validate the reliability of the survey questionnaire. Furthermore, the one-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the differences between the offensive techniques and defensive techniques according to the athletes’ career. Results: As a result of the study, it turned out that there were significant differences across hand techniques, waist techniques, foot techniques, offensive techniques, and defensive techniques. Examining the techniques, it turned out that there were significant differences in offensive techniques among the hand techniques, pull and throw, throw or destroy with shoulder, and grab a single color and throw, and all techniques among the defensive techniques had significant differences. Conclusion: As a result of this study, it turned out that the greater the career, the higher the utilization of hand techniques and foot techniques among the offensive techniques, and the less the experiences, the higher the utilization of waist techniques. As for the defensive techniques, the greater the career, the utilization of hand techniques, waist techniques, and foot techniques all turned out to be high. However, among the waist techniques, hold belt, lift and throw over with waist and counter attack using opponent's techniques turned out to be high, the less the career.
    Keyword:Judo, Offensive Techniques, Defensive Techniques, Athletes’ Career, Analysis of Utilization
  • Purpose: The purpose of this research is to boost e-sports industries by conducting a comparative analysis on the current status of sponsor companies growing together with the Chinese professional e-sports competitions to understand the relationship between Chinese e-sports competitions and sponsor companies. Method: Based on the League of Legends Pro League, China's most influential e-sports competition, we would like to examine the relationship between sponsor companies and e-sports industries through longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons of sponsor status from 2014 to 2020. Results: This resulted in the following: First, due to the accurate positioning of users, the first party competitions showed higher recognition or influence than the third party competitions. Based on the fact that mobile e-sports products can easily attract young users due to their low entry barriers, mobile e-sports products and competitions are important growth engines for the development of the e-sports industry. In addition, it has been shown that non-pro leagues support the development of professional leagues and that professional leagues are indispensable to interact, complement and promote the development of non-professional leagues. Second, according to an analysis of the sponsorship status of global e-sports events, computer and peripheral companies as computer and related fields were most actively sponsoring e-sports competitions, and the support of global companies was steadily increasing. Finally, after looking at the sponsorship status of e-sports competitions in China, it was found that e-sports sponsorship is a major source of income in the e-sports industry and is growing together with the participation of influential sponsor companies. Conclusion: In the League of Legends event, China's most influential e-sports competition, teenagers and 30s were the main sources of income, with mostly male products-oriented sponsor companies. However, if women's participation is steadily increasing and men and women's competitions are held to attract sponsors and marketability, e-sports can grow together with the attraction and participation of global sponsor companies.
    Keyword:Esports, China's E-Sports Events, Sponsors, Sponsorship, Growth
  • Purpose: As it is the mission of coaches to appropriately guide their athletes on ethical and moral character, the role of sports coaches is crucial beyond anything, and it is also necessary to consider the guiding beliefs and methods which lead the students(or trainees) in the desired direction if sports coaching or guidance is more than merely an educational role to play. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine and articulate the professionalism and ethical sensitivity of coaches, which have an important effect on the sports leagues as well as sports teams and athlete management, further to the effect on the guiding beliefs, thereby exploring an efficient operational method for managing and fostering sports teams and athletes. Method: In this study, as of 2021, the coaches who were formerly professional sports athletes were used as the population, and as for the sampling method, 250 people were surveyed by the convenience sampling, while the survey was conducted by using the self-administration method, and among the collected questionnaires, those of 284 respondents were used as valid samples, excluding the data with insincere responses or omissions of some of the details of the survey. Results: As a result of the factor analysis performed on professionalism, ethical sensitivity, and guiding belief, the professionalism was consisted of professionalism factor and technical requirement factor, while ethical sensitivity was consisted of one factor for the ethical sensitivity factor, and guiding belief factor was consisted of the 3 factors of behaviorism factor, interactionism factor, and maturationism factor, respectively. As for reliability, it turned out that professionalism factor was α=.795, technical requirement factor α=.692, ethical sensitivity factor α=.799, behaviorism factor α=.800, interactionism factor α=.835, and maturity factor was α=.697, respectively. As a result of the correlation analysis performed, it turned out that there was a positive(+) relationship between all of the factors, and it also turned out that the professionalism factor influenced the ethical sensitivity factor and the educational belief factor. Conclusion: In order to achieve the purpose of this study, it is evident that the professionalism of sports coaches influences ethical sensitivity and guiding belief based on the results of the questionnaire. It is considered that it is necessary not only to explore the means to help improve the professionalism of sports coaches, which influences the ethical sensitivity and guiding beliefs of the sports coaches’ education, but also create and form an overall environment for the self-development of the sports coaches.
    Keyword:Sports, Coaches, Professionalism, Ethical Sensitivity, Guiding Belief
  • Purpose: To identify public Recognition and areas of interest in sports welfare through big data related analytical techniques, and to provide basic data required for establishing sports welfare policies. Method: Keyword frequency analysis, sentiment analysis, semantic network analysis,, and CONCOR analysis were performed. Results: The public was demonstrated the highest frequency and derived as a key keyword. As keywords related to the benefit from sports welfare support, health, physical strength, and happiness were derived, and words related to the welfare of athletes such as athletes, competitions, events, games, and leaders appeared. As a result of sentiment analysis, the positive rate(79.52%) was found to be very high. Third, as a result of the semantic network analysis, keywords such as the public, health, sports activities, support, and service are located in the center of the network, and are confirmed as major keywords. As a result of the CONCOR analysis, ‘National Fitness 100’, ‘Sports participation Voucher’, and ‘Participation Policy of Sports for all ’ were formed. Conclusion: The public recognition and areas of interest in sports welfare were examined and Identified based on the results of this research. That could provide the basic data required for devising the sports welfare policies.
    Keyword:Sports Welfare, Big Data, Text Mining, Sentiment Analysis, CONCOR Analysis
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the successful improvement of figure skating techniques when applying them to people with cerebral palsy and present basic data to develop various figure skating programs suitable for the characteristics of people with cerebral palsy. Method: This study conducted a structured experimental study as it investigates the technical changes of people with cerebral palsy in modified skating postures and performances with choreography. For this experimental study, five group performances were organized, and a total of 15 experimental procedures were conducted separately from the experimental group(with cerebral palsy) and the comparative group(non-disabled). Results: Comparing the average scores of skating movements according to the measurement session by group, the difference in average scores in the first, second, third, and fourth sessions was statistically significant(p<.05).The BTS movements according to the measurement sessions have been gradually improved along with the implementation sessions. The average score of BTS movements in the experimental group was 12.36(2.72), which is 0.98 points higher than the average of comparative groups(11.38, 2.42). However, the collective scores of these BTS movements did not show statistically significant differences[F(16,4) =1.43, p>.05]. Comparing the average scores of connection movement by measurement session by group, the difference in average score was statistically significant[F(1, 4)=5.95, p<.05). The average score for the entire session of the experimental group was 6.30(1.83) and the average score for the comparative group was 4.81(1.35), indicating the overall average difference of 1.49. Conclusion: The study showed that there was a change in ability through figure skating group performances of people with cerebral palsy. Based on this, it is believed that follow-up research should be conducted to develop efficient and applicable figure skating programs by modifying and supplementing the program.
    Keyword:People with Cerebral Palsy, Figure Skating Program, Group Performance, Skating Program, Performance
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the motivation of purchase of the self paced beauty device of middle-aged women's body has any effect on the perceived value and the intent to use continuously. In particular, since the expansion of the self-beauty management in the women's market and the cost-effectiveness due to the COVID-19 turned increasingly important, it is sought to analyze the motivation of purchase for the products and develop the products meeting the consumer needs of the middle-aged women to develop a differentiated marketing strategy for the self-beauty devices, and offer assistance for the basic data to improve the consumption value of the continuous use by the middle-aged women. Method: The subjects of this study were middle-aged women aged 35 to 65 experienced in the self-paced beauty devices,, and to validate the research issue, 523 copies of online questionnaires were utilized for 17 cities and provinces across the nation by using the SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 25.0 programs, and in order to examine the validity of the observed variables forming the latent variables, the confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the convergent validity and the discriminant validity while the structural equation model was used to validate the inter-variable direct effect and indirect effect. Results: As a result of the analysis performed, it turned out that effectiveness(β=.505, p<.001), reliability(β=.352, p<.001), and aesthetics(β=.072, p<.05) influenced the perceived value by the motivation of purchase, and it turned out that reliability(β=.438, p<.001) and effectiveness(β=.418, p<.001) influenced the intent to use continuously by the motivation of purchase. Based on the results of this study, it turned out that the higher the motivation of purchase and the larger the perceived value, the greater the intent to use continuously, and in particular, aesthetics, effectiveness, and reliability turned out to be important factors for the sub-factors of the motivation of purchase. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it turned out that the higher the motivation of purchase and the larger the perceived value, the greater the intent to use continuously, it is evident that the functional value and psychological value of the perception granted to the products by the variable of the motivation of purchase are crucial in determining the intent to use continuously the self-paced beauty devices for the middle-aged women’s body and maintaining the consumers. It is also meaningful in that, since the changes in the self-beauty management device market due to the COVID-19 is expected to further expand, it offers implications useful for the beauty device industry according to the motivation of purchase for the consumption value as a detailed sustainability strategy for providing the customized beauty device services satisfying the needs of the consumers.
    Keyword:Middle-Aged Women, Beauty Device, Motivation of Purchase, Intent to Use Continuously, Perceived Value
  • Purpose: This study sought to explore knowledge structures and domains by analyzing research conducted concerning Para Taekwondo for it to be recognized as a discipline. Method: This study sought to explore knowledge structures and domains by analyzing research conducted about Para Taekwondo for it to be recognized as a discipline. To this end, the classification and knowledge structure of the field of research on Para Taekwondo-related research were explored by using keyword-based knowledge network analysis research methods for a total of 42 Para Taekwondo-related studies conducted from 2004 to 2021. Results: First, according to the analysis of the critical keywords of Para Taekwondo-related research, the keywords that represent the highest frequency were 'training' and 'intellectual impairment,' which represented 26 frequency each, accounting for 10% of the total keywords. Second, 'fitness' with nine frequencies accounted for 4 percent, followed by eight 'athletes' keywords, seven 'balance' keywords, seven 'competition' keywords, and six 'hearing impact' keywords. Secondly, the knowledge structure of Para Taekwondo-related research was analyzed as a whole. This study confirmed that the related structures were formed based on 'intellectual impairment' and 'training.' Thirdly, an analysis of the type of thesis related to Para Taekwondo found that major clusters were formed around the top keywords 'training' and 'intellectual impairment' with the highest degree centrality. Finally, the top keywords with the highest degree centrality of Para Taekwondo-related academic papers were 'training,' 'intellectual impairment,' 'athletes,' and 'fitness.' In addition, academic papers formed a major colony around 'training.' Conclusion: Based on the results of this research, studies on various topics related to Para Taekwondo could be activated and Para Taekwondo could develop into a single academic area by expanding its scope.
    Keyword:Para Taekwondo, Training, Fitness, Knowledge Structure, Keyword Network Analysis
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantitatively identify the characteristics of lower extremity movements before and after taping during the closed change step motion in waltz for dance sports experts by using the functional taping, which is widely known for the prevention and treatment of the sports injuries, and also provide coaches and athletes with the appropriate posture and injury prevention by offering the basic data for the technical performance. Method: As for the subjects of this study, 8 female experts with 5 or more years of experience in dance sports in the metropolitan city of B were selected and experimented. Prior to entering the experiment, a consent was secured from each subject, and the method of the experiment was explained, while the kinematic data were collected by using 5 digital cameras. As for the statistical processing of this study, the joint angle data were calculated before and after taping during the closed change step motion by using the SPSS 24.0. First, the mean and standard deviation were obtained, and in order to analyze the difference before and after taping, and time and phase, a corresponding sample t-test was conducted. The level of significance was set to α=.05. Results: As a result of the experiment, it turned out that taping did stabilize the joint balance rather than causing problems for the mobility of the lower extremity joints via a biomechanical analysis of the lower extremities during the closed change step in motion waltz, and it is determined that it may have significance in that it provided the basic data required for the injury prevention as well as for the efficient performance of movements. Conclusion: Gathering the conclusions as such, it is determined that taping may have significance in that it stabilizes the joint balance during the closed change step motion in waltz and provides the basic data required for the efficient performance of movement and the injury prevention.
    Keyword:Biomechanics, Closed Change Step, Waltz, Taping, Angle
  • Purpose: As a single goal in football has a great value compared to other sport, the importance of the first goal is also greater than other sport. This study aimed to identify the effects of scoring first on the match results considering a variety of match situational variables e.g. match venue, team quality, opposition team quality, the latest performance form, opposition’s latest performance form and time, that were not considered in the previous football studies. Method: All matches(N=162) from all teams(N=12) in K-league during 2020 season were selected as a sample. The data, officially provided from K-league website, were compiled using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS 25 was used to conduct statistical analysis. The mean and standard deviation were obtained through descriptive statistical analysis, and cross-tabulation analysis and chi-square analysis were conducted to analyze the mean differences between independent variables. Results: Of all matches, a goal scored during 149 matches and 13 matched finished without a goal, that resulted 0:0. Of 149 matches, the teams that scored the first goal had a 68.5% chance of winning the matches. The winning rate(67.9%) when the home teams scored the first goal was lower than that of the away teams(69%), but there was no statistically significant difference. The winning rate(87.7%) when the top teams scored the first goal was statistically significantly higher than the winning rate(55%) when the middle teams and the bottom teams(52.3%) scored the first goal. The winning rate(47.5%) when scoring the first goal against the top teams was statistically lower than the winning rate(72.9%) when scoring the first goal against the middle teams and the bottom teams(80%). The winning rate of teams scored first goal at the end of matches(60-75 minutes: 88.2%, 75-90 minutes: 100%) was higher than the winning rate of teams scored first early(0-15 minutes: 64.3%, 15-30 minutes: 63.3%), but there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The first goal had a huge impact on the outcome of the game. In detail, the first goal had a significant impact on the outcome of the matches depending on the level of the teams that scored the first goal and the opposing teams, while the venue, recent performance form and time of the matches did not have a significant impact. Looking at these results, the need for research on the first goal, which greatly affects the outcome of the game, is emerging, and it is believed that systematic analysis is needed to suit the situational variables.
    Keyword:Football, Performance Analysis, First Goal, Situational Variables, K-League