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CRISIS of School Violence in KOREA: Understanding Bystanders in School Violence Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
2020-10-14 20:39


This study focused on the role of the bystander in the school violence situation and tried to understand the choices of the bystander by applying “Theory of Planned Behavior”. In school violence situations, there are bystanders in addition to bullies and victims, and bystanders play significant roles in the situation. Sometimes their choices can determine the outcome of the school violence.
According to TPB(behavior, intention, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control), the reasons why they choose to be an outsider rather than a defender can be interpreted as follows. They perceive the indifferent behaviors of a bystander and its results as positive and believe that others around will remain outsiders. Also, there is no difficulty in being a bystander, as it does not require an active action.
On the other hand, they do not show the behavior of defenders because they perceive the defender's behavior and its result as negative, believe that the students in a classroom have the norm against the defender's behavior. Even if they want to take an action, they do not know what to do. And they may not be confident in taking an action even when they know what to do.
In order to resolve school violence, the bystanders should respond effectively to the situation as defenders of victims. To this end, it is necessary to actively utilize the result of verifying bystander selection in school violence applying TPB. In particular, we must improve students’ attitudes toward the outsiders’ and defenders’ behaviors and the behavioral outcomes. And Concrete and explicit norms for helping behaviors should be built in their classroom. Finally, we need to inform students how to help victims and improve their confidence in those behaviors. So, we will be able to solve school violence problems by reducing outsiders and increasing defenders when designing and operating an anti-bullying program based on the TPB in the school environment.

Keyword:Crisis, Theory of Planned Behavior, School Violence, Bullying, Bystander
  • Purpose: There are two primary purposes of this study. The first of which is to examine and validate the relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and(individual) performance in the public sector. The second of which is to quantitatively validate the moderating effect of organizational commitment on the relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance. Recognizing that studies in Korea on the flexible work arrangement, especially most of the quantitative studies have been focused on the studies to validate the effect of the flexible work arrangement, and given the inadequacy of the studies statistically validating the relationship with the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement, the goal lies with contributing to the development of the flexible work arrangement related studies. Method: To validate the hypothesis of this study, the data of the 2020 Public Service Life Survey provided by the Korea Institute of Public Administration was utilized. The target of this study was civil servants serving at general(administrative/technical/managemental) duties affiliated with central administrative agencies and self governing governments. Variables for this study include performance(dependent variable), satisfaction with flexible work arrangement(independent variable), organizational commitment(control variable), gender, age, marital status, educational background, and position(control variable), etc. To validate the hypothesis, a statistical analysis was performed to validate the moderating effect by using the regression analysis. Results: The key contents of the results of the statistical analysis of this study are as follows. First, the more the civil servant perceived greater satisfaction with the flexible work arrangement, the higher the individual's perceived performance level. Second, it was confirmed that the organizational commitment variable has had the effect of partially adjusting the positive relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance. In conclusion, both the first and second hypotheses used in this study were statistically verified. In connection with the control variables, the perceived(individual) performance of the older civil servant also turned out to be higher, and it was analyzed that the perceived performance of the unmarried civil servants was higher than that of the married. Furthermore, it turned out that there is a positive relationship of influence between the level of education and performance. Conclusion: This study, which presented a positive relationship of influence through the quantitative analysis between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance, is determined to be capable of making contribution to the development of domestic flexible work arrangement related studies to date. Furthermore, in order to further expand the positive relationship between the satisfaction with flexible work arrangement and performance, it was confirmed through the validation of the hypothesis of this study that the extent of organizational commitment of the members is crucial.
    Keyword:Flexible-Work Arrangement, Satisfaction with Flexible-Work Arrangement, Performance, Organizational Commitment, Public Sector
  • Purpose: Currently, the number of single person households worldwide is increasing. Lifestyle-related diseases are increasing due to changes in consumption patterns, excessive intake of fat and cholesterol, and increased intake of processed foods. Therefore, modern people have increased their interest in health, and as they are more interested in vegetarian diets and exercise, the purchase and intake of protein useful for health is increasing. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the reasons for purchasing plant protein, expenditure cost, purchase type, etc. for consumers who have purchased plant-based protein, and to provide basic data when developing plant-based protein products. Method: From April 1 to 20, 2021, FGI(Focus Group Interview) was conducted with 12 people in their 20s and 12 people in their 30s.One person's interview took about 2 hours, and after recording, the contents were organized. Questions are the reasons for purchasing vegetable protein supplements, one-time purchase cost, type of vegetable protein supplement, and importance when purchasing vegetable protein supplements. Results: The ratio of men and women in their 20s and 30s was 50%, 12 people in their 20s and 12 people in their 30s.There were 10 students and 14 working people. Reasons to buy vegetable protein supplements include increased muscle mass, lower fat and cholesterol content than animal protein, and diet. The one-time purchase cost was 20,000 to 30,000 won, and the most common purchase of powdered vegetable protein supplements was the development of snacks, noodles, and confectionery. In addition, protein content, fat and cholesterol content, trusted brands, diet and help in increasing muscle mass were also considered important. Conclusion: It is best to develop vegetable protein products that consumers want, such as snacks, noodles, and bakery products addition, onetime cost is 20,000 to 30,000 won, and it is recommended to develop a products that can increase muscle mass and has low fat and low cholesterol content. Therefore, this study is thought to be helpful in the development of plant protein intake products suitable for the tastes of consumers in their 20s and 30s who are dieting and vegetarian.
    Keyword:Vegetable Protein, FGI(Focus Group Interview), Purchasing Behavior, Product Development, Consumer Demand
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate the effect of a movement therapy program applying the Marian Chase Technique on the peer relationship and behavior of deviation within the integral education for the non-disabled and disabled of the same age. Method: In this study, the students without disability participated in the experiment to validate the effectiveness of the integral movement therapy program applying the Marian Chase Technique. A total of 12 movement therapy programs were carried out once per week from September 4, 2019 until November 27, 2019 for 3 students with disability and 7 students without disability who participated in the M University’s movement therapy program. Results: As a result of measuring the peer relationship of the movement therapy program in the integrated environment, and student A improved by 32 points from 2 points during the 1st round to 34 points during the 12th round, and student B increased by 8 points from 1 point during the 1st round to 9 points during the 12th round. Furthermore, student C improved by a total of 21 points from 11 points during the 1st round to 28 points during the 12th round. As a result of measuring the frequency of behavior of deviation by period through the movement therapy program, student A with disability decreased by 75% from 4 times during the 1st round to once during the last 12th round on average. Student C with disability decreased by 50% from 6 times during the 1st round to 3 times during the 12th round, and student B with disability decreased by 25% from 8 times during the 1st round to 6 times during the 12th round. Conclusion: Consequently, it was evident that the effect of the movement therapy program for which the integral education was carried out has had an effect on the peer relationship and behavior of deviation of the children with mild autism. It is considered that the studies to develop an individualized movement therapy program for the students with autism demonstrating differences is needed.
    Keyword:Integral Movement Therapy Program, Marian Chase Technique, Peer Relationship, Behavior of Deviation, Safety
  • Purpose: This study examines the current status of COVID-19 vaccination in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, we investigate the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines and their properties, COVID-19 vaccine prioritization guidance and timeline, and the status of adverse events after the COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, we examine the SARS-CoV-2 variants and the current prevalent variants in the Republic of Korea. Method: This study was conducted on Web-based searches about the latest updates COVID-19 from the World Health Organization, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. In addition, we searched for the “COVID-19 OR vaccines” in PubMed and then reviewed the selected articles regarding COVID-19 vaccines, prioritization guidance, adverse effects, and variants. Results: To date, 4 COVID-19 vaccines have been received regulatory approval in the Republic of Korea. To promote stable COVID-19 vaccination, the COVID-19 Vaccination Promotion Task Force announced the order of COVID-19 vaccine distribution and vaccination schedules from the first and the third quarter of 2021, intending to complete the first dose of vaccination in 70% of the country's population by the end of September 2021. Currently, a total of 20,169,592 vaccine doses have been administered until August 02, 2021, representing 38.9% of the total population, and 7,289,659 individuals(about 14.1% of the country’s population) have been fully vaccinated so far. In total, 0.49%(105,937 cases) of individuals who were vaccinated reported adverse effects. Among them, 94.9% were general adverse reactions, and 5.1% were severe adverse effects, including death and suspected anaphylaxis(severe allergic reactions). Recently, Delta variant is significantly expanding since June, and it is currently the predominant strain of the virus in the Republic of Korea. Conclusion: Since June 12, the highest Social Distancing Level 4 has been implemented in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. With COVID-19 vaccination, we need to cooperate with antivirus measures and cancel unnecessary social gatherings to protect ourselves from the persistent infectious disease.
    Keyword:Approved COVID-19 Vaccines, COVID-19 Vaccine Prioritization, COVID-19 Vaccination Schedules, Adverse Reactions, SARS-CoV-2 Variants
  • Purpose: Empirical research was conducted on the Korean security police by verifying the difference between the total working period of the police and the working period of the security department. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via self-administration method. Among the collected survey questionnaires, 91 were selected as valid samples, excluding those whose answers were incomplete or missing. Results: The differences in impressions according to the total length of service for the police were significant in Q-8, Q-11, Q-12, Q-13, Q-14, Q-15, Q-16, Q-17, Q-18, Q-19, and Q-20. Also, the differences in the impressions of security officers over their working periods were significant in Q-8, Q-14, Q-18, Q-19, and Q-20. Conclusion: efforts to improve the working environment and organizational culture must be made to improve the importance of police activities. Furthermore, measures for psychological and economic stability of police officials must be taken together to ensure a long working period. This will not only help improve the national security services but also improve crime prevention and response activities for the safety of the people.
    Keyword:North Korean Refugees, Security Police, Empowerment, Working Period, Difference
  • Purpose: This study is a descriptive research study intended to identify and understand the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity, daily stress, adaptation to college life, and quality of life for the candidates for preschool teacher during the COVID-19 CRISIS. Through which, it is sought to improve the overall quality of life by reducing the interpersonal sensitivity of the candidates for preschool teachers amidst the spread of the COVID-19, and furthermore, provide assistance for the growth of the candidates for preschool teachers’ professionalism. Method: To achieve the purpose of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 279 preschool teacher candidates who are the first and second year students in colleges and universities which train preschool teachers in Busan and Gyeongnam, who enrolled after the outbreak of the COVID-19, and the SPSS statistics program was utilized to perform the descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and the multi-parameter regression analysis. Results: First, interpersonal sensitivity had a significantly positive correlation with daily stress and adaptation to college life, and a negative correlation with quality of life. Furthermore, daily stress had a positive correlation with interpersonal sensitivity, a negative correlation with quality of life, while quality of life and interpersonal sensitivity had a negative correlation. Second, the extent of interpersonal sensitivity and daily stress explaining the quality of life was significantly positively correlated for 44.5%. Third, in the relationship of effect of the interpersonal sensitivity on the quality of life, daily stress had a partially mediating effect. Conclusion: Preschool teacher candidates perceived interpersonal sensitivity resulting form negative self conceptions, daily stress, and adaptation to college life as average or below during the COVID-19 crisis, and considering the fact that interpersonal sensitivity influences daily stress, quality of life, and adaptation to college life overall, it is necessary amidst the COVID-19 crisis to expand various counseling and education programs to reduce the interpersonal sensitivity and daily stress for preschool teacher candidates and enhance their adaptation to college life and the overall quality of life.
    Keyword:Adaptation to College Life, Daily Stress, Quality of Life, Interpersonal Sensitivity, COVID-19 Crisis
  • Purpose: The beauty industry quenches the basic human needs, and it may also be said that it is a necessary startup in the present time when appearance is a form of competitiveness. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between caring for appearance and make-up behaviors of women college students for the beauty salon startups targeting women college students amidst the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Method: As for the research method, the questionnaire method was used for women college students in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The questionnaire was consisted of caring for appearance, make-up behaviors, and demographic variables, while frequency, percentage, and average were calculated to discover the demographic characteristics of the research subjects, and to identify and understand the relationship between caring for appearance and make-up behaviors, the multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the Pearson's moment correlation and causal relationship. Results: As a result of the analysis, first, caring for appearance was derived as such factors including focus on appearance in trend, self-development, and sexual attractiveness, while make-up behaviors were derived as such five factors including prevalence, conformity, subjectivity, instrumentality, and ostentation. Second, all sub-factors of the motive of caring for appearance of women college students turned out to have a statistically significant, positive correlation with all sub-factors of the make-up behaviors. Third, the motive for caring for appearance turned out to have a statistically significant effect on the sexual attractiveness and focus on appearance of the make-up behaviors across all sub-factors, and the factors of prevalence and instrumentality turned out to have a significant effect excluding the focus on appearance in trend. Conclusion: Amidst the prolonged COVID-19 crisis, beauty salons are faced with a crisis. To overcome this crisis and proceed with a re-startup, a far more specialized research on the marketing subjects will be needed. Therefore, it is expected and hoped that this study will serve as the basic data for re-startup amidst the crisis and will also be used as the marketing materials for the beauty workers aspiring to take a new leap forward.
    Keyword:Crisis, Beauty Salon, Startup, Caring for Appearance, Make-Up Behaviors
  • Purpose: This study aims to develop a gamification model for flipped learning for the systematization and simplicity of gamified teaching and learning design for teachers and for learners’ enjoyable, self-directed learning during the pre- and post-classes. As the world has recently experienced a crisis in the form of the COVID-19 pandemic, teaching and learning environments have changed a lot. Flipped learning can be used as an alternative strategy for improving educational effectiveness while considering the issue of learners’ safety in crisis situations. Flipped learning enables mastery learning and improves learning effects with a learning style that suits students and increases learner participation. Method: To verify the validity of the gamification model for flipped learning derived through FGI , the content validity and face validity were verified by a group of experts using a testing tool. The criteria established for selecting the group of experts were those who had a doctorate degree in a major field or had more than ten years of educational experience and who are currently teaching in universities or public educational sectors. The validity test criteria consisted of ‘validity,’ ‘utility,’ and ‘usefulness’ as a class design model, and ‘understanding’ and ‘value’ for the explanation , and they were each scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The average value of the validity for each evaluation item was found to be within the range of 4.2 to 4.6, indicating that all the elements of the model were properly recognized. The calculations for each evaluation factor also show that the ratio(CVR) was distributed within the range of 0.75 to 1.00. A final model for flipped learning classes incorporating gamification was derived, validated, and verified. The four procedural elements of flipped learning using gamification are navigate(N), aim(A), build(B), and implement(I). Conclusion: A gamification model for flipped learning, consisting of navigate, aim, build, and implement(NABI) procedures, was developed and has been proven to be valid. A strategic approach was needed to improve the current state of flipped learning, and gamification, which can lead to the active participation of participants, was necessary. These attempts will serve as a significant opportunity to implement flipped learning more dynamically. It is also expected that gamification will be a catalyst for learners’ enjoyable, effective, memorable, sustainable and meaningful learning experiences inside and outside the classroom.
    Keyword:Gamification Model, Flipped Learning, Instructional Strategy, Self-Directed Learning, Mastery Learning
  • Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relation between BCMS operating factors and organization internalization. To achieve the purpose of this study, the followings detailed objectives are established. First, the differences are clarified through comparative analysis by investigating the operating status of the BCMS of domestic commercial banks according to the Financial Supervisory Service's BCP standards. Second, the operating factors are analyzed and organized to see if they affect the internalization of each bank's BCMS organization in the BCMS operation process. Third, to examine the methodology of organizational internalization of the bank BCMS, in-depth interviews are conducted with the relevant expert group, and the methodology of organizational internalization of the banking BCMS is proposed. Method: In order to study the operating factors for internalization of BCMS in organization, the author investigated BCP operating level by comparison analysis the BCMS status quo of the four commercial Banks in Korea. The operating factors identified as scope of this study are BIA(Business Impact Analysis), RA(Risk Assessment), Business Management Strategy and BCP exercise, In addition, an FGI(Focus Group Interview) was conducted for BCM experts to study the methodology for raising the level of organizational internalization of BCMS. The FGI conducted qualitative surveys through in-depth interviews with the experts. Results: The operating way for BCP exercise, cycle and exercise types etc, are the factors to impact the level of BCMS organization internalization. The author derived the methodology for the BCMS internalization to the Bank, it is considered in terms of education and training for staffs, activation of communication between organizations and individuals, BCMS operating standards in detailed level to avoid any doubts in BCM operation and organizational culture. Conclusion: The author reached the conclusion that organization need to enhance the cognitive level of the members through education/BCP exercise, activated communication, operating detailed BCP procedure, interest and participation of top-management and establishment organization’s culture which respect the BCM, especially in order to form an organizational culture, mutual respect and the formation of a trust relationship are continuously needed since culture is not formed in short period of time.
    Keyword:BCMS, BCP Exercise, Bank, Internalization, Crisis
  • Purpose: With the deepening of global aging, how to control and prevent the health crisis of the elderly has become the focus of global attention. To address this problem, a large number of studies have been conducted around the world, and physical activity has been shown to be closely linked to health risks in the elderly. In order to sort out the results of many researches, this paper made a scientometrics analysis of the relevant researches in the past 10 years. This can not only systematically understand the current research trend, but also serve as a reference for subsequent research. Method: This study adopted scientometrics and visual analysis methods, thus CiteSpace Visualization based on Java programming was employed as the main tool of the study. Literature searched from Web of Science database from 2010 to present and was used to show the topic evolution of research related to the research topic after analysis. Results: According to the statistics on the time and quantity of the literature on physical activity and health risks of the elderly, it was found that the literature had a stable increasing trend from 2010 to 2012, from 2013 to 2015, from 2016 to 2018, and from 2019 to 2020. Through the analysis of the co-occurring map of institutions on physical activity for elderly, it was found that colleges and universities were the core in the institutions in this field. Geriatrics & Gerontology, Public Environmental & Occupational Health, General & Internal Medicine, Medicine, Nutrition & Dietetics and Physical provided basic for the researches on physical activity and health risks of elderly. The research hotspots were showed as physical activity, risk, risk factor, Older adult, elderly, exercise, mortality, health, prevalence, association. This indicated that the researches on physical activity and health risk of the elderly at this stage mainly focused on the health and physique of the elderly. In the second stage, there were abundant experimental studies on the physical function of the elderly, the physiological dimension of different types of senile chronic diseases, and the risk factors of disease prevention. In the third stage, the researches on the elderly' personal health behavior and lifestyle, social support and health promotion began to be prominent. Conclusion: This paper took Web of Science as the data source and used CiteSpace, a scientific measurement tool, to draw the knowledge map of physical activity and health risks of the elderly scientifically and rigorously, and systematically analyzes the basic characteristics, research hotspots and topic evolution of this research field. However, there are still some limitations in the time period, database and search scope of the research results, which we hope can be solved in the follow-up research.
    Keyword:Health Risk of the Elderly, Scientometrics Research, Physical Activity, Visual Analysis, Knowledge Map