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Approaches to Forming ETHICAL AI as an Artificial Moral Agent: Suggesting Virtue Education Method Through Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

Vol.6 (No.2) 2021
Author
admin
Date
2021-06-30 15:32
Views
130

Abstract


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose that the virtue education method can be utilized in the process of learning to have ethics as an Artificial Moral Agent(AMA). Recent various discussions about AI presuppose the coexistence of humans and AI. Meanwhile, in order for coexistence to be achieved, it is fundamentally necessary for humans as individual beings to form relationships with others in an appropriate way. This study focused on the use of the virtue education method among the methods for AI to learn the order of relationships as an AMA that becomes the counterpart of human ethical behavior in the interaction between humans and AI.
Method: This study presented basic data using the method of literature research. And based on this, a virtue education method that can be applied to AMA was developed and presented using the method of development research. With this, This research tried to argue about the necessity and validity of the virtue education method.
Results: This study examines that the current discussion on ethical learning in AMA is mainly based on a Top-down approach based on traditional ethical theory. And as an alternative to this, it is suggested that machine learning and deep learning methods can be used as a method for AMA to learn ethics. Based on this, the characteristics and validity of virtue ethics applicable to AMA were presented. And as a method to learn it, a teaching and learning method applicable to the learning of AMA was proposed.
Conclusion: Currently, the approach to preparing ethics for AMA tends to mainly choose a Top-down approach in which a specific ethical theory is selected and the design of a computational algorithm and system that can implement the theory is derived. However, just as children develop moral reasoning through appropriate developmental stages, AMA also needs to actively introduce a bottom-up approach to forming ethical judgment principles. As a specific method, we propose to use the method of grafting the virtue education method of analyzing the characteristics of a virtuous person and repeating it by imitating it to the deep learning method of AI.

Keyword:Artificial Moral Agents(AMA), AI, Ethics, Deep Learning, Teaching and Learning Method
  • Purpose: The framework of online education is evolving from e-learning to XR-learning. As expectations for the educational effect and market growth of reality contents increase, the South Korean government has established related education policies and is making intensive investments. Generation C, Z, and Alpha learners, Digital Natives, are quickly responding and adapting to the concept of Metaverse. Thus, this study suggests the need for the transition of multicultural education in line with the changes in social, educational technology, and intends to present a rough direction of multicultural education. Method: This study used the approach of literature review and document analysis. The results of this study should be supplemented by quantitative and qualitative studies in the future. For a literature-oriented approach, refer to the government agencies' presentation materials and academic studies. Document survey is mainly related to cyber education materials presented on the Internet and various resources. Results: This study presented three ways of multicultural education using VR: First, 'Korean Culture Experience Program' offering experience of traditional Korean culture or historical facts; Second, 'Korean Life Adaptation Program' to settle down in Korean life including markets, banks, or community service centers; Third, 'education program for multicultural understanding and sensitivity' providing virtual cases of language barrier, social exclusion, and discrimination. In reality, there are still problems that require a lot of investment in content formulation, equipment purchase, maintenance, etc., and securing quality of content and finding suitable education methods. Conclusion: This study aims to present the direction of multicultural education in Korea using the virtual reality. Producing feasible contents needs expensive and very complicated procedures. This study proposes a basic concept how multicultural education in Korean society can be made in virtual space. These VR contents have the advantage of being able to be an education suitable for the actual environment because they have the advantage of allowing learners to experience and discuss directly in virtual spaces. To this end, there remain challenges to overcome both ethical issues and budget problems of developing high-level contents.
    Keyword:Online Education, E-Learning, XR-Learning, Metaverse, Multicultural Education
  • Purpose: As a core technology of the 4th industrial revolution, artificial intelligence is rising as a crucial technology for determining the competitiveness of nations and industries at a great pace. However, students who are not majoring in it have the tendency to perceive AI technology to be difficult, and hence, a more efficient AI education is needed. The purpose of this study is to present an educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy appropriate for the learner's level, apply it to the classroom, then explore its impact in terms of the artificial intelligence ethics. Method: In this study, an educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy which may be utilized for the non-majors using the tools of artificial intelligence has been designed. To analyze the impact of the educational program conducted in this study on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics, the single group pre- and post-test which infers the causal relationship by implementing and analyzing the questionnaires on the changed perception of the artificial intelligence ethics before and after the application of the program was applied for the design method. Results: The impact of the education program for the artificial intelligence literacy on the perception of the artificial intelligence ethics has been analyzed through the single group’s pre- and post-test by operating this program. As a result of the analysis, it has been verified that there was a positive change in the perception of the artificial intelligence ethics via the proposed educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy. Conclusion: In this study the impact of the educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics has been analyzed by proposing and applying educational program for the artificial intelligence literacy for and in college and university liberal arts classes for the non-majors. The artificial intelligence literacy education has had a positive impact on the learner's perception of the artificial intelligence ethics. For the non-major students to fully comprehend the artificial intelligence, including the artificial intelligence ethics, an education which includes experience in the use of artificial intelligence ought to be offered beyond the classes of theory which merely convey knowledge, and towards this end, it was verified that a well structured artificial intelligence literacy education which can more than adequately offer the experiences of using and utilizing the artificial intelligence is necessary.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Education, Education Model, AI Literacy, Artificial Intelligence Ethics
  • Purpose: This study aims to discover the changes made to the affective domain of the students who participated in “the Online League of Legends(LoL) Game School” program during the COVID-19 education crisis. The program was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education’s Student Education Institute from August 2020 to July 2021 for elementary school students(fifth grade onward) to juniors in high schools in Seoul. The program consisted of game English, game science, game humanities, game writing, game-related songs, game music composition, game analysis and game strategies about the online game League of Legends, and adventure-based counseling(ABC) activities. Method: Twenty-nine students participated in the survey to determine positive and negative affections, intrinsic motivation, and the most interesting and challenging activities. The PANAS scale was used to find out whether participants had positive or negative affections about the program. This survey was highly reliable, and the questionnaires were scored on a 7-point Likert scale each. To examine the students’ intrinsic motivation, four intrinsic motivation factors were selected: pleasure, flow, challenge, and growth potential. The participants described the most interesting and challenging activities of the Online LoL Game School program with the help of open-ended questions. Results: The participants had strong positive affections for the program(PA: 5.3928) instead of negative affections(NA: 1.9598), and experienced “flow”(5.26) the most among the four factors. Also, the most interesting and challenging activity of the program was game English. Conclusion: These study findings revealed that 1)the students had positive affections about the Online LoL Game School program, 2)among the four intrinsic motivation factors, pleasure, flow, challenge, and growth potential, the students experienced flow the most, 3)the most interesting and challenging activity was game English. This study uncovered that the Online Game School program influenced the students’ positive affections and intrinsic motivation. Online education programs related to games, in which many students showed interest, can be triggers for students to engage in active learning and reconsider their growth and future careers. The study findings and attempts can help create a positive school climate and bring about social change to provide Generation Z students with a pleasurable and meaningful learning experience.
    Keyword:League of Legends(LoL), Online Game School, Online Learning, Affective Domain, Korean Students
  • Purpose: In addition to congenital causes due to heredity, hair loss is caused by acquired causes such as aging, excessive stress, irregular eating habits, and smoking. The population of hair loss continues to increase every year, amounting to 10 million people, and the age at which the hair loss begins is gradually decreasing. As the interest and efforts for the improvement have increased, the market for the hair loss has also incrementally expanded. Method: In this study, the technologies related to the hair loss prevention and improvement are classified into the scalp nutrition supply(field A), scalp stimulation(field B), scalp washing(field C), and oral administration(field D), and by examining the trends in the application of the patents for such fields of technology(including utility model), this study sought to identify the potential for the development of technologies related to the hair loss prevention and improvement and fields which ought to be focused on the hair loss related technologies in the future. Results: Consequently, it was confirmed that active patent activities have continued for the hair loss prevention and improvement related technologies, and in particular, the intensive patent activities are conducted in the field of technologies related to the scalp washing. Conclusion: Accordingly, this study seeks to contribute to the facilitation of the hair loss prevention and improvement related technology market and also expand the market by analyzing and understanding the trends of patents for the hair loss prevention and improvement related technologies and inducing the determination of the desirable directions for the research and development.
    Keyword:Hair Loss, Scalp, Treatment, Care, Improvement
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the difference of happiness by the experience that adolescents use a smartphone. While many studies that digital media use had some negative effect on happiness have released, some studies have showed that the use of digital media worked positively. Also, contradictory theories such as "displacement” and "stimulation” have been suggested in the ways digital media can affect lives. This study is to analyze the impact smartphone use on adolescents’ subjective happiness in Korea. Method: Data from the 11th Korean Children and Youth Well-Being Index Survey conducted in 2018 were used to analyze the relationship between Korean adolescents' smartphone use experience and their subjective happiness. The dependent variable was subjective happiness, and smartphone using experience was subdivided into daily usage time, degree of problematic use, main usage(social relationship, joy, and study/information). Result: The main purpose and hours of use of a smartphone were related to subjective happiness for male students, but problematic use was related for female students. And the longer male students used the smartphone daily and the worse female students’ problematic use was, the lower their subjective happiness was. However, when main usage is for social relationships for male students, subjective happiness is higher than for the rest of them. Conclusion: The relationship between smartphone use and subjective happiness varied by gender and the ways they used it. These results show that smartphone use may not only work in a particular direction, but also vary depending on the ways people use it. After all, it is important to identify the various factors that make this difference rather than to take the specific view of digital media even if that is positive or negative.
    Keyword:Smartphone, Subjective Happiness, Adolescent, Displacement, Stimulation
  • Purpose: This study developed an education model that satisfies the lifelong learning needs of residents of metropolitan areas in the midst of today’s era of lifelong learning. Method: A literature study, a survey of lifelong education officers, and a survey of residents of metropolitan cities were conducted. The literature study was on human development by life stage, lifelong education programs, and lifelong education models. The preliminary survey was conducted to ask the opinions of lifelong education managers and lifelong education experts on the implementation of lifelong education by life stage. The following questions were asked to them through workshops and interviews. For example, “What do you think should be prioritized when operating lifelong education by life cycle in the region?”, “What kind of lifelong education program do you think is necessary for each stage of life?”, “What do you think are the policies and projects for the development of lifelong education?” Specific needs and preferences were identified by asking about them. Based on the preliminary survey, a survey was conducted on the necessity of lifelong education by life cycle targeting 1,200 residents of metropolitan cities. Results: It was found necessary to establish a lifelong education program that meets the developmental tasks and needs in each of five life stages and considers the characteristics of the learners’ areas. Conclusion: Residents of metropolitan areas should be provided lifelong education programs for each stage of the life cycle that reflect their needs in each stage as well as the characteristics of their area. Such lifelong education programs must be carried out with universal programs that are essential for each life stage.
    Keyword:Lifelong-Education, Lifelong-Learning, Life-Cycle, Lifelong-Education-Model, Public-Lifelong-Education
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to conduct English classes using AI chatbots, which are rapidly emerging as keywords for society as a whole, and to qualitatively analyze learners' learning experiences through learners' responses revealed in the process. Method: For this purpose, an English class using AI chatbot was applied for one semester to 23 first-year students attending A middle school, and 4 of them were selected as research participants. For data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with the 4 students who experienced English classes using AI chatbots to closely examine their thoughts and attitudes. Qualitative content analysis, a research method that reveals patterns and topics of content through the coding process, was adopted, and the transcribed data was uploaded to Target(taguette.com), an online free analysis tool, for analysis. Results: As a result of the study, the students experienced increased English proficiency including speaking and listening skills, changed their motivation and attitude toward learning English, increased interest in learning English, decreased anxiety in learning foreign languages, difficulties with chatbot utterance speed and difficulty, and chatbot response limitations. Conclusion: Through the results of this study, it was possible to an in-depth examination of the changed learning experiences of students and the expansion of learning methods suitable for the era of the 4th industrial revolution in the future. Therefore, in the EFL environment such as Korea, AI chatbots are highly likely to be used as an effective tool in terms of English learning and learners' affective domain, which is expected to maximize the effectiveness of English education.
    Keyword:Fourth Industrial Revolution, Artificial Intelligence(AI), AI Chatbot, English Education, Korean EFL Learners
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose that the virtue education method can be utilized in the process of learning to have ethics as an Artificial Moral Agent(AMA). Recent various discussions about AI presuppose the coexistence of humans and AI. Meanwhile, in order for coexistence to be achieved, it is fundamentally necessary for humans as individual beings to form relationships with others in an appropriate way. This study focused on the use of the virtue education method among the methods for AI to learn the order of relationships as an AMA that becomes the counterpart of human ethical behavior in the interaction between humans and AI. Method: This study presented basic data using the method of literature research. And based on this, a virtue education method that can be applied to AMA was developed and presented using the method of development research. With this, This research tried to argue about the necessity and validity of the virtue education method. Results: This study examines that the current discussion on ethical learning in AMA is mainly based on a Top-down approach based on traditional ethical theory. And as an alternative to this, it is suggested that machine learning and deep learning methods can be used as a method for AMA to learn ethics. Based on this, the characteristics and validity of virtue ethics applicable to AMA were presented. And as a method to learn it, a teaching and learning method applicable to the learning of AMA was proposed. Conclusion: Currently, the approach to preparing ethics for AMA tends to mainly choose a Top-down approach in which a specific ethical theory is selected and the design of a computational algorithm and system that can implement the theory is derived. However, just as children develop moral reasoning through appropriate developmental stages, AMA also needs to actively introduce a bottom-up approach to forming ethical judgment principles. As a specific method, we propose to use the method of grafting the virtue education method of analyzing the characteristics of a virtuous person and repeating it by imitating it to the deep learning method of AI.
    Keyword:Artificial Moral Agents(AMA), AI, Ethics, Deep Learning, Teaching and Learning Method
  • Purpose: This study aims to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of YouTube beauty content and the intention to purchase cosmetics for men and women from 20 to 40 years old. In particular, it aims to present how to utilize YouTube beauty content by gender by analyzing the mediating effect of beauty content involvement centered on male-female comparisons and studying how to use big data in popular videos. Method: This study was conducted in 17 cities and provinces nationwide with 201 men and 201 women from 20 to 40 years old using SPSS 25.0 as an empirical analysis method for 402 copies of the online questionnaire. In order to verify the mediating effect, it was re-verified through regression analysis and Sobel-test according to the mediated effect verification procedure proposed by Baron & Kenny(1986). Results: In Question 1, the characteristics of YouTube beauty contents show a significant positive(+) effect on the purchase intention of cosmetics; in Question 2, the characteristics of YouTube beauty content were found to have a significant positive influence on beauty content; while in Question 3, the path that influenced the purchase intention of cosmetics by mediating the degree of involvement in beauty contents was revealed in part; and finally, in Question 4, gender differences were revealed. Conclusion: It was found that the characteristics of YouTube beauty content and the degree of involvement have a positive effect on the consumer's intention to purchase cosmetics, and there are gender differences. In particular, entertainment and information had the greatest influence on YouTube beauty content characteristics and beauty content involvement. Therefore, to use YouTube as a marketing method in the future, it will be necessary to target male and female YouTube beauty content viewers based on big data and create beauty content that provides both interest and information at the same time.
    Keyword:YouTube Content, Intention to Purchase Cosmetics, Beauty Content Involvement, Entertainment, Big Data
  • Purpose: In recent years, AI technology has emerged as a core technology for the fourth industrial revolution. Along with the existing SW education, it is time to prepare for AI education, since the interest in AI education is also growing. The fact that learning about the theory and principles of AI is important is also stressed in the college education. However, non-major students tend to perceive AI technology to be difficult, and hence, a more efficient AI education is required. The purpose of this research is to guide the learners' direction for AI education, helping them to break away from their fears of AI through the AI education appropriate for the learners’ level. Method: In this study, to analyze the effect of the developed educational program on the learners’ AI literacy, the dependent variables changed before and after the application of the program were analyzed, and the single group’s ex ante and ex post testings were applied for the designing method for inferring the causal relationship. Results: The AI literacy of undergraduate students was analyzed for the educational program via the ex ante and ex posts testings of a single group by operating this program. As a result of the analysis, significant results were obtained where all three areas of the AI literacy were improved through the educational program Conclusion: This study is meaningful in that the AI educational program was proposed for the liberal arts class at college for the non-majors, and that the AI educational program which is generally applicable for the liberal arts class was developed and directly applied to validate its effectiveness. Discussions are expected to continue to develop the various details of the AI basic education to ensure that the non-majors can enter the AI education without fearing the AI based on the results of this study.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence, AI Education, Education Model, AI Literacy, Artificial Intelligence Ethics